Shift: The Next-Gen Blockchain with Phantom, a Killer dApp for Decentralized Web and File Hosting
[TASK] $20/day - Supervise and occasionally harass a chronic procrastinator
Edit: Thanks everyone, I think I'm good... how do I close this thing...
Thisiseditedcopypastaofmyrequestfromawhileago.(Actually like, \5th time I've done this, see post history if curious).)Theresultofthatwasthatitworkedwellforawhile,soIambackformore.
Looking for someone who, ideally, spends all day at a computer, doing something easy / boring.
I do "computer stuff" for a living, and my job doesn't have much oversight, so I've been developing a lot of bad habits. It's totally out of control - I am at work (WFH these days) 10-12 hours a day and spend the whole time screwing around online, promising myself that I'll get started in five minutes. I'm very competent when working, but most weeks I spend literally <2hr on task. If you want to indulge in my self-loathing, look through my post history. What I needis basically a babysittesupervisor over my shoulder (virtually). I'm in the EST/EDT time zone, work M-F, and have flextime: averaging a 09:00-17:00 job but many days being a couple hours long/short. That said, if you can squeeze 4 hours of no-BS work out of me in a day, that's a win. I need someone to keep an eye on my work and ask me if anything looks suspicious, or I'm AFK for a while, have a basic idea of what I'm working on. I'll be sending frequent updates (10-30 min apart) on how stuff is going, with screenshots a good percentage of the time to prevent me from bullshitting you. Basically, you stay on top of me like those annoying micromanaging bosses that everyone hates. Harassment is done over IM - I'm flexible on which one, but preferably one of these: Discord, gTalk/gChat/Hangouts, Signal, although I am willing to use SMS, or anything with a browser agent (Telegram, Skype, Watsapp, etc...). Payment:$20/day - PayPal, bitcoins, dogecoins, check in the mail, I'll accommodate you. If you want help with learning or doing something related to programming, linux, spreadsheets, k8s/containerization, I'll throw that in for free*. Don't bother offering <$20 - in my experience it needs to be worth a chunk to both you and me so that you give a shit about the task, and I am slightly pained by the expenditure, but not so much that I want to lie and fake success early. Preferences:The more miserable your life, and the more you want that $20/day, the better. I used to be the guy on the other side - too much screen time, need a tiny bit of money, don't want real job. Mention your circumstances in your $bid, e.g. "I am a NEET living in mom's basement, pretending to be taking edX courses while I'm actually watching anime, I have a 4 monitor rig so no problem keeping an eye on you!" or something like that. Multiple offers:I always get a bajillion offers, so here's the deal. I'm only considering the first 5 $bids which have a 1-2 sentence summary of their situation. First by timestamp, so if you see 5 $bids, I am probably already editing the post to be closed. For the five people, I'll arrange them in random order, and do paid trial days (I will PM you with the date, it'll be the next 5 business days, maybe counting today). Once I get a competent match (about ½ - ⅓ of applicants in my experience, so even if you're 3rd consider your chances poor), I'll "hire" them cancel those still waiting, =\ sorry, can't afford 5 nannies. Feel free to comment to ask for additional information. I'll close and update this post when I get 5 $bids. \)OntwooccasionsI'vespentallnighthelpinganacquaintancegettheirfinalprojectinCS101fromgarbagecodetomostly-working.One of mypreviouspaidaccountabilitysupervisorstradedacoupleoffreedaystodebugsomeproblemswithapache2and,IIRC,aphpscript. But if you just need like, 45 min of help every now and then, we can bang it out, no need to sacrifice your money.
Because a blockchain is a siloed, self-contained system by design, interacting with other blockchain protocols is challenging. Atomic Swaps enable cross-chain exchange of digital assets, avoiding the need for centralised exchanges. Blockchains are excellent at decentralised value transfer within their own domains. That is, you can send BTC to any Bitcoin address securely and easily, and you can send LTC to any Litecoin address securely and easily too. But because blockchains are based on consensus between miners, they are not designed to interface with other blockchains. Trading assets on different blockchains has therefore traditionally involved third parties like exchanges and OTC desks – with all the risks and inefficiencies they bring. Cross-chain swaps Atomic swaps solve this problem by enabling cryptocurrencies to be traded across blockchains. This allows trustless exchange of assets, quickly and efficiently. Here’s how they work in theory:
Alice and Bob agree to exchange some cryptocurrency. Alice will send Bob 1 BTC, and Bob will send Alice 50,000 ERG. Neither party trusts the other, so neither wants to send their crypto first.
Alice generates a secret – a long random number – and hashes it. She then creates a transaction on the Bitcoin blockchain with a script attached, locking 1 BTC and specifying a condition: when the secret (pre-image) to the hash she has created is revealed, the BTC will be sent to Bob’s address. The hash can safely be included in the transaction script, because the pre-image cannot be calculated from it.
Bob then similarly creates a transaction on the Ergo blockchain, including a script with the same hash Alice has used. When the pre-image is revealed, 50,000 locked ERG will be sent from Bob’s address to Alice’s address. Because Bob doesn’t have the pre-image, he can’t execute Alice’s transaction before he has created his own.
Once Alice sees that Bob has created his transaction on the Ergo blockchain, she can publish the secret and execute his transaction. Because the pre-image is now public, Bob can also use it to execute the script that will send him his BTC.
Neither party can delete their transactions and scripts once they have been posted to the blockchain. They may include a condition that the transaction will expire within a certain time, to avoid their coins being locked indefinitely if Alice does not reveal the secret.
Ergo’s atomic swaps
They are called ‘atomic’ swaps because the orders are either executed in their entirety, or not at all – a kind of fill-or-kill order. But while that’s useful up to a point, it doesn’t allow for active trading, like you would be able to do on an exchange. Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps develops the concept further. It’s relatively easy to swap coins or custom tokens trustlessly across any Bitcoin-like blockchains. But beyond that, Ergo allows partial swaps. Just like on a regular exchange, orders can be partially filled, if that’s what the trader wants. This means it’s possible to build a fully-fledged decentralised exchange (DEX) that enables cross-chain trading: a totally trustless version of existing crypto exchanges. There’s no need for any gateways, token wrapping or other potential bottlenecks or points of failure. You can find out more about Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps and intra-chain and cross-chain token swaps in the ErgoScript white paper. Share post: Facebook Twitter Ergoplatform.org
Ergo enables new models of financial interaction, underpinned by smart contracts built on flexible and powerful Sigma protocols but easily accessible to developers. One of the most exciting things about blockchain is the possibility of making digital agreements without any trusted intermediaries. In the simplest use case, pioneered by Bitcoin, Alice can send a payment directly to Bob, wherever the two of them are located around the world, with no bank or any trusted third party needed. However, with the functionality of a modern blockchain like Ergo, it is possible to make far more complex and sophisticated financial agreements than simple payments. Take the following example. Gold-backed tokens Alice uses ERGs to purchase gold-backed tokens from Bob. Bob stores the gold in a secure vault, and uses the blockchain to issue one token for every Troy ounce of gold he has. Alice can then use these tokens freely in different contracts, transferring and trading them under whatever conditions she specifies in the smart contract code. When Alice wants to sell the tokens for physical gold, she can conduct another transaction with Bob, receiving ERG in return, at market price. The point of blockchain contracts is to eliminate the need for trust. While the purchase transaction is now trustless, in this instance Alice still needs to trust Bob about two things. Firstly, Bob may refuse to swap the gold tokens back to ERG at the correct price when Alice wants to sell. Secondly, Bob may default on his obligations – running away with the gold, or misusing the funds he receives and running a fractional reserve. Extending the contracts To address these issues, we can create an Oracle, or decentralised price feed. This uses multiple sources of external data to record the price of gold to the blockchain at regular intervals. This price feed will be the reference point for the redemption contract that manages the sale of Alice’s gold with Bob (or any other participant). Thus the system automatically enforces the right price when a swap takes place. The second situation requires a third-party insurer, Charlie, whose service is also hosted on the blockchain with a smart contract. When Alice purchases gold from Bob, she additionally buys an insurance contract from Charlie. The payment can be dependent on factors including the amount of insurance required, and Bob’s reputation – again, managed by a decentralized feedback mechanism. Now, if Bob defaults, Alice will automatically receive the value of her gold tokens, with Charlie effectively acting as a buyer of last resort. Programmable contracts There are, of course, many other example use cases like this one. We can also extend this use case, adding further economic actors. For example, Charlie may sell shares in his insurance business to Dave and other participants, providing them with a proportion of revenues in return for ensuring he has the capital he needs to cover any liabilities from the outset. However, even the most complex use case is simpler than general-purpose software that can be used to program any contract. After all, generalised logic must be both far-reaching and secure. Moreover, even a specialised contract is made up of many steps, each of which is fairly simple. Thus another requirement for a general-purpose platform is that it should simplify the process of writing contracts, making them as accessible (and safe) as possible. This can be achieved with the use of template agreements, with customisable parameters. The insurance contract above could be based on a module with flexible parameters, for example. This could be used and reused in many different circumstances. Ergo’s approach This is essentially the approach that Ergo takes, providing superior support for real-world financial agreements. It does this through:
Support for multi-stage contracts (watch details for developers)
A simple high-level language, ErgoScript, enabling clear descriptions of contractual logic
Support for formal verification of contracts for improved security guarantees (Ergo Platform deployed its first formally verified p2p crowdfunding contract just three months after the network launched)
Easy Oracle creation
Native support for complex signature schemes In short, creating financial contracts on the blockchain isn’t just about the functionality you provide. It’s about making that functionality safe and accessible, as well as powerful. Ergo achieves this and more.
The first and foremost thing to know about Leasehold platform is that it is decentralized that is to say, it is based on blockchain. Leasehold is also a profit-sharing business or platform with the sole purpose of sharing rental income via tokenization brought about by blockchain. In the same way, it is good to know that, the Leasehold platform aims to be a valuable one and to achieve this, sees it fit to ensure their token holders are always comfortable hence the idea of rewards being in the form of buy-back and burn; with this strategy, the Leasehold platform take the acquired profits, buys back its tokens from the market and burn them. In other ways, Leasehold token is a Deflationary token which will continue to be bought and burnt as the platform ensures strict growth policies are followed.
Like earlier stated, there are many blockchain projects with different consensus algorithms such as Proof-of-Stake, Proof-of-Work etc, in the case of Leasehold, it will be based on Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS). This DPOS is of the idea that delegates within the platform can create blocks, these delegates are trusted and as such selected to be active within the platform in addition to the fact they secure the chain while getting their rewards which is strictly based on a good performance.
Talking about a decentralized exchange, it offers more security because, in the crypto space, there are many exchanges that have been hacked, exit scam with funds as well as closing accounts without reason. Therefore, Leasehold will sure have its own because the team wants to offer a secure, safe, trustworthy and reliable platform for trading of LSH tokens. When trading in Leasehold platform's DEX, there will be no malicious acts but instead a good level of trust and transparency.
Another point as to why Leasehold is worthwhile is the fact that it makes it possible for users to partake in profit-sharing without owning properties physically, nor is there a need to identify themselves. In view of this, Leasehold is working towards taking huge advantages of the tourist industry, everyday living industry etc since it has been proven that booking platforms grow with more than double the users from the previous years. With this move, as a user, there is an opportunity to profit by owning the property, while with Leasehold, everything is simplified leading to owning a portion of profits.
Another wonderful attribute of Leasehold platform is that token holders are carried along in the development of the platform, in this case, they are always presented with updated happenings which includes buy-back details, acquisition of properties etc.
Since security is paramount in Leasehold platform, the team created a hub, which will make it possible for token holders to securely store their tokens in their wallet. This wallet is connected directly to the Leasehold network.
There are many projects already in the crypto space which supports mining and same is the case with Leasehold. Leasehold will have a real-time data pool bearing all the financials of the platform's earnings. It will also display a list of the current buy-back funds which will be used for buy-back and burn purposes.
Currently, many people in the world are limited when it comes to using of cryptocurrencies and this is where tokenization comes to play; that is, with tokenization, many people in the world will be free and able to buy crypto easily. With this in mind, in the Leasehold platform is tokenization as well, with tokenization of LSH tokens, people from all over the world will be able to take part in profit-sharing from the Leasehold short term rental markets. This is profitable because a study has shown that, short term rental markets are now booming all over the world because there is no need putting up large amounts of capital at once, which many individuals do not have or have access to.
There are two methods of property rental in Leasehold platform which is developed to accommodate different types of users; a. Property rental of non-owned apartments: This is a method where the Leasehold team will accept the responsibility of running apartments for homeowners which will be at an agreed amount. In this case, the team will use their marketing strategies and booking system methods to ensure the best of services is offered to homeowners while on the other hand, this will also help Leasehold to acquire constant funding for its buybacks. b. Property rental of owned properties: In this method, the Leasehold team will strive to achieve the maximum amount of returns since all profits will belong to the company at the same time distributed to the buybacks. Furthermore, from the profits made, Leasehold will continue buying property on the open market while renting it out using its specially designed cross-platform method.
Just like there are blockchain platforms which sought for funding before continuing building their platform, same is with Leasehold. The team will carry out 5 stages of ITO’s with the aim of raising enough funding so as to acquire small apartments thus starting the renting process and partner site setups. According to the team, the reason for these stages of ITO is that each stage will allow the Leasehold platform to acquire and set up the working business model that will make the buy-back and burn process possible. The end result of this is, Leasehold will be in a position to be free from cryptocurrencies volatility as well as being far bear markets. Leasehold Initial Token Offering (ITO) has started already and stipulated to end by May 2020. Read more on (ITO).(It is wise to make your own research before investing or participating in any token sale.)
Launch your cryptocurrency exchange website business within 7 days
In this technology world no need introductions for Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum and Ripple have performed a traditional investment business for all entrepreneurs. A lot of crypto business ideas available for gaining more money than your investment amount. This is a complete guide for investors, entrepreneurs, and business persons who are all going to start a cryptocurrency exchange website? Let have a short description about cryptocurrency exchange.
What is a cryptocurrency exchange platform?
A crypto exchange platform is a service for traders where they can buy or sell any type of Cryptocurrencies but the success of exchange charges a commission fee for each transaction. If you think the building of digital-currency exchange costs too much money?Did It’s taking too much time to launch a website? We are the sellbitbuy cryptocurrency exchange development company that provides the advanced cryptocurrency exchange scriptwith customized white label solutions.
The revenue model for crypto exchange websites owners
The platform owner will gain money through the trading fee and other sources of income profit like listing fees, affiliated programs, and Dark pool trading, advertisement fees, etc. Some reasons to develop a Cryptocurrency exchange platform Simple Launching and running a Crypto exchange platform will be a little complex than another business. Increase the value of cryptocurrencies will change minutes to minutes. A huge amount of people are using bitcoin other coins across the world. The will be little volatility in the cryptocurrency markets Did you think it may affect the business? When the volatility high or low traders will use the digital asset the owner can able to earn profit from transactions carried out by the users in the platform. Now the above section can give a brief idea of gaining a revenue more than your investment. Sellbitbuy offers more different type of script that will help you to build a cryptocurrency exchange platforms.
We have listed some type of digital coins exchange platforms
Centralized Exchanges: These types of exchanges watch through a middle man build with a simple design where anyone can sign up and buy or sell coins. If you need to build you can use our centralized exchange scriptwith cost-effective budget Peer to Peer Exchanges: These types of exchanges attract an escrow account where the traders don’t get scam from other trades. You can get the peer to peer exchange scriptwith security protocols Cryptocurrency Brokerage Exchange: In this brokerage exchange website the will be bulk of cryptos transactions will be maintained. We can give an innovative features cryptocurrency exchange platforms and customized admin panel with 7 days. You can make research to find out how many days you need to build a cryptocurrency exchange website? The will a lot of opinion from a different type of cryptocurrency exchange development company Some will say it takes 30 days or 10 days or even more than 90 days. If you get the digital-asset exchange platforms with one week? This is a golden opportunity for a businessman who is willing to start an exchange business.
We follow some strategics to completed our crypto exchange project.
We analyze the current market that helps to gain more ideas about the crypto exchange existing platform and helps to add more new features on a technical ground basis.
Which countries audiences they need to target or geo-targeting method.
We can give the support of the legal team for the cryptocurrency regulations method.
We used the advanced technology stack like PHP 8, React js, Angular, Java, Python, Mysql, Mongo DB, etc.
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We never leave our clients our supportive time always gave a 24*7 days supports.
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arriving at consensus AND distributing coins via burning Bitcoin instead of electricity/equipment to create permissionless, unfakeable, green, and trust minimized basis over every aspect of sidechain control.
creating Bitcoin peg from altcoin chain to mainchain (the hard direction) by allocating small percentage of Bitcoin intended for burning to reimbursing withdrawals, effectively making it a childchain/sidechain (no oracles or federated multisigs)
This is not an altcoin thread. I'm not making anything. The design discussed options for existing altcoins and new ways to built on top of Bitcoin inheriting some of its security guarantees. 2 parts: First, the design allows any altcoins to switch to securing themselves via Bitcoin instead of their own PoW or PoS with significant benefits to both altcoins and Bitcoin (and environment lol). Second, I explain how to create Bitcoin-pegged assets to turn altcoins into a Bitcoin sidechain equivalent. Let me know if this is of interest or if it exists, feel free to use or do anything with this, hopefully I can help.
how to create continuous sunk costs, permissionless entry, high cost of attacks?
how to do it without needing to build up a new source of hardware capital or energy costs?
how to peg another chain's token value w/o incentivized collusion risk of federation or oracles?
how to make sidechain use fully optional for all Bitcoin parties?
how to allow programmable Bitcoins w/ unlimited permissionless expressiveness w/o forcing mainchain into additional risks?
Solution to first few points:
Continuous Proof of Bitcoin Burn (CPoBB) to distribute supply control and sidechain consensus control to independent parties
Distributes an altcoin for permissionless access and sidechain-only sybil protection.
In case of sidechain block-producer censorship, Bitcoin's independent data availability makes sidechain nodes trivially aware
PoW altcoin switching to CPoBB would trade:
cost of capital and energy -> cost of burnt bitcoin
finality of their PoW -> finality of Bitcoin's PoW
impact on environment -> 0 impact on environment
unforgeable costliness of work -> unforgeable costliness of burn
contract logic can include conditions dependent on real Bitcoins as it's Bitcoin-aware
PoS altcoin switching to CPoBB would trade:
permissioned by coin holders entry -> permissionless entry by anyone with access to Bitcoin
no incentive to give up control or sell coins -> incentive to sell coins to cover the cost of burnt bitcoin
incentivized guaranteed centralization of control over time by staking -> PoW guarantees with same 0 environmental impact
nothing at stake -> recovering sunk costs at stake
contract logic can include conditions dependent on real Bitcoins as it's Bitcoin-aware
We already have a permissionless, compact, public, high-cost-backed finality base layer to build on top - Bitcoin! It will handle sorting, data availability, finality, and has something of value to use instead of capital or energy that's outside the sidechain - the Bitcoin coins. The sunk costs of PoW can be simulated by burning Bitcoin, similar to concept known as Proof of Burn where Bitcoin are sent to unspendable address. Unlike ICO's, no contributors can take out the Bitcoins and get rewards for free. Unlike PoS, entry into supply lies outside the alt-chain and thus doesn't depend on permission of alt-chain stake-coin holders. It's hard to find a more bandwidth or state size protective blockchain to use other than Bitcoin as well so altcoins can be Bitcoin-aware at little marginal difficulty - 10 years of history fully validates in under a day.
What are typical issues with Proof of Burn?
limited burn time window prevents permissionless entry in the future. how many years did it take for most heavily mined projects to become known and well reviewed? many. thus entry into control of supply that's vital to control of chain cannot be dependent on the earliest stage of the project. (counterparty)
"land grabs" - by having limited supply without continuous emission or inflation we encourage holding vs spending.
These issues can be fixed by having Proof of Burn be permanently accessible and continuous: Continuous Proof of Bitcoin Burn CPoBB
This should be required for any design for it to stay permissionless. Optional is constant fixed emission rate for altcoins not trying to be money if goal is to maximize accessibility. Since it's not depending on brand new PoW for security, they don't have to depend on massive early rewards giving disproportionate fraction of supply at earliest stage either. If 10 coins are created every block, after n blocks, at rate of 10 coins per block, % emission per block is = (100/n)%, an always decreasing number. Sidechain coin doesn't need to be scarce money, and could maximize distribution of control by encouraging further distribution. If no burners exist in a block, altcoin block reward is simply added to next block reward making emission predictable. Sidechain block content should be committed in burn transaction via a root of the merkle tree of its transactions. Sidechain state will depend on Bitcoin for finality and block time between commitment broadcasts. However, the throughput can be of any size per block, unlimited number of such sidechains can exist with their own rules and validation costs are handled only by nodes that choose to be aware of a specific sidechain by running its consensus compatible software. Important design decision is how can protocol determine the "true" side-block and how to distribute incentives. Simplest solution is to always :
Agree on the valid sidechain block matching the merkle root commitment for the largest amount of Bitcoin burnt, earliest inclusion in the bitcoin block as the tie breaker
Distribute block reward during the next side-block proportional to current amounts burnt
Bitcoin fee market serves as deterrent for spam submissions of blocks to validate
sidechain block reward is set always at 10 altcoins per block Bitcoin block contains the following content embedded and part of its transactions: tx11: burns 0.01 BTC & OP_RETURN tx56: burns 0.05 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of valid sidechain block version 1> ... tx78: burns 1 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of valid sidechain block version 2> ... tx124: burns 0.2 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of INVALID sidechain block version 3> ...
Validity is deterministic by rules in client side node software (e.g. signature validation) so all nodes can independently see version 3 is invalid and thus burner of tx124 gets no reward allocated. The largest valid burn is from tx78 so version 2 is used for the blockchain in sidechain. The total valid burn is 1.06 BTC, so 10 altcoins to be distributed in the next block are 0.094, 0.472, 9.434 to owners of first 3 transactions, respectively. Censorship attack would require continuous costs in Bitcoin on the attacker and can be waited out. Censorship would also be limited to on-sidechain specific transactions as emission distribution to others CPoB contributors wouldn't be affected as blocks without matching coin distributions on sidechain wouldn't be valid. Additionally, sidechains can allow a limited number of sidechain transactions to happen via embedding transaction data inside Bitcoin transactions (e.g. OP_RETURN) as a way to use Bitcoin for data availability layer in case sidechain transactions are being censored on their network. Since all sidechain nodes are Bitcoin aware, it would be trivial to include. Sidechain blocks cannot be reverted without reverting Bitcoin blocks or hard forking the protocol used to derive sidechain state. If protocol is forked, the value of sidechain coins on each fork of sidechain state becomes important but Proof of Burn natively guarantees trust minimized and permissionless distribution of the coins, something inferior methods like obscure early distributions, trusted pre-mines, and trusted ICO's cannot do. More bitcoins being burnt is parallel to more hash rate entering PoW, with each miner or burner getting smaller amount of altcoins on average making it unprofitable to burn or mine and forcing some to exit. At equilibrium costs of equipment and electricity approaches value gained from selling coins just as at equilibrium costs of burnt coins approaches value of altcoins rewarded. In both cases it incentivizes further distribution to markets to cover the costs making burners and miners dependent on users via markets. In both cases it's also possible to mine without permission and mine at a loss temporarily to gain some altcoins without permission if you want to. Altcoins benefit by inheriting many of bitcoin security guarantees, bitcoin parties have to do nothing if they don't want to, but will see their coins grow more scarce through burning. The contributions to the fee market will contribute to higher Bitcoin miner rewards even after block reward is gone.
What is the ideal goal of the sidechains? Ideally to have a token that has the bi-directionally pegged value to Bitcoin and tradeable ~1:1 for Bitcoin that gives Bitcoin users an option of a different rule set without compromising the base chain nor forcing base chain participants to do anything different. Issues with value pegs:
federation based pegs allow collusion to steal bitcoins stored in multi-party controlled accounts
even if multisig participants are switched or weighted in some trust minimized manner, there's always incentive to collude and steal more
smart contract pegs (plasma, rollups) on base chain would require bitcoin nodes and miners to validate sidechain transactions and has to provide block content for availability (e.g. call data in rollups), making them not optional.
bitcoin nodes shouldn't be sidechain aware so impossible to peg the value
Let's get rid of the idea of needing Bitcoin collateral to back pegged coins 1:1 as that's never secure, independent, or scalable at same security level. As drive-chain design suggested the peg doesn't have to be fast, can take months, just needs to exist so other methods can be used to speed it up like atomic swaps by volunteers taking on the risk for a fee. In continuous proof of burn we have another source of Bitcoins, the burnt Bitcoins. Sidechain protocols can require some minor percentage (e.g. 20%) of burner tx value coins via another output to go to reimburse those withdrawing side-Bitcoins to Bitcoin chain until they are filled. If withdrawal queue is empty that % is burnt instead. Selection of who receives reimbursement is deterministic per burner. Percentage must be kept small as it's assumed it's possible to get up to that much discount on altcoin emissions. Let's use a really simple example case where each burner pays 20% of burner tx amount to cover withdrawal in exact order requested with no attempts at other matching, capped at half amount requested per payout. Example:
withdrawal queue: request1: 0.2 sBTC request2: 1.0 sBTC request3: 0.5 sBTC same block burners: tx burns 0.8 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1, 0.1 BTC is sent to request2 tx burns 0.4 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1 tx burns 0.08 BTC, 0.02 BTC is sent to request 1 tx burns 1.2 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1, 0.2 BTC is sent to request2 withdrawal queue: request1: filled with 0.32 BTC instead of 0.2 sBTC, removed from queue request2: partially-filled with 0.3 BTC out of 1.0 sBTC, 0.7 BTC remaining for next queue request3: still 0.5 sBTC
Withdrawal requests can either take long time to get to filled due to cap per burn or get overfilled as seen in "request1" example, hard to predict. Overfilling is not a big deal since we're not dealing with a finite source. The risk a user that chooses to use the sidechain pegged coin takes on is based on the rate at which they can expect to get paid based on value of altcoin emission that generally matches Bitcoin burn rate. If sidechain loses interest and nobody is burning enough bitcoin, the funds might be lost so the scale of risk has to be measured. If Bitcoins burnt per day is 0.5 BTC total and you hope to deposit or withdraw 5000 BTC, it might take a long time or never happen to withdraw it. But for amounts comparable or under 0.5 BTC/day average burnt with 5 side-BTC on sidechain outstanding total the risks are more reasonable. Deposits onto the sidechain are far easier - by burning Bitcoin in a separate known unspendable deposit address for that sidechain and sidechain protocol issuing matching amount of side-Bitcoin. Withdrawn bitcoins are treated as burnt bitcoins for sake of dividing block rewards as long as they followed the deterministic rules for their burn to count as valid and percentage used for withdrawals is kept small to avoid approaching free altcoin emissions by paying for your own withdrawals and ensuring significant unforgeable losses. Ideally more matching is used so large withdrawals don't completely block everyone else and small withdrawals don't completely block large withdrawals. Better methods should deterministically randomize assigned withdrawals via previous Bitcoin block hash, prioritized by request time (earliest arrivals should get paid earlier), and amount of peg outstanding vs burn amount (smaller burns should prioritize smaller outstanding balances). Fee market on bitcoin discourages doing withdrawals of too small amounts and encourages batching by burners. The second method is less reliable but already known that uses over-collateralized loans that create a oracle-pegged token that can be pegged to the bitcoin value. It was already used by its inventors in 2014 on bitshares (e.g. bitCNY, bitUSD, bitBTC) and similarly by MakerDAO in 2018. The upside is a trust minimized distribution of CPoB coins can be used to distribute trust over selection of price feed oracles far better than pre-mined single trusted party based distributions used in MakerDAO (100% pre-mined) and to a bit lesser degree on bitshares (~50% mined, ~50% premined before dpos). The downside is 2 fold: first the supply of BTC pegged coin would depend on people opening an equivalent of a leveraged long position on the altcoin/BTC pair, which is hard to convince people to do as seen by very poor liquidity of bitBTC in the past. Second downside is oracles can still collude to mess with price feeds, and while their influence might be limited via capped price changes per unit time and might compromise their continuous revenue stream from fees, the leverage benefits might outweight the losses. The use of continous proof of burn to peg withdrawals is superior method as it is simply a minor byproduct of "mining" for altcoins and doesn't depend on traders positions. At the moment I'm not aware of any market-pegged coins on trust minimized platforms or implemented in trust minimized way (e.g. premined mkr on premined eth = 2 sets of trusted third parties each of which with full control over the design). _______________________________________
Brief issues with current altchains options:
PoW: New PoW altcoins suffer high risk of attacks. Additional PoW chains require high energy and capital costs to create permissionless entry and trust minimized miners that are forever dependent on markets to hold them accountable. Using same algorithm or equipment as another chain or merge-mining puts you at a disadvantage by allowing some miners to attack and still cover sunk costs on another chain. Using a different algorithm/equipment requires building up the value of sunk costs to protect against attacks with significant energy and capital costs. Drive-chains also require miners to allow it by having to be sidechain aware and thus incur additional costs on them and validating nodes if the sidechain rewards are of value and importance.
PoS: PoS is permissioned (requires permission from internal party to use network or contribute to consensus on permitted scale), allows perpetual control without accountability to others, and incentivizes centralization of control over time. Without continuous source of sunk costs there's no reason to give up control. By having consensus entirely dependent on internal state network, unlike PoW but like private databases, cannot guarantee independent permissionless entry and thus cannot claim trust minimization. Has no built in distribution methods so depends on safe start (snapshot of trust minimized distributions or PoW period) followed by losing that on switch to PoS or starting off dependent on a single trusted party such as case in all significant pre-mines and ICO's.
Proof of Capacity: PoC is just shifting costs further to capital over PoW to achieve same guarantees.
PoW/PoS: Still require additional PoW chain creation. Strong dependence on PoS can render PoW irrelevant and thus inherit the worst properties of both protocols.
Tokens inherit all trust dependencies of parent blockchain and thus depend on the above.
Embedded consensus (counterparty, veriblock?, omni): Lacks mechanism for distribution, requires all tx data to be inside scarce Bitcoin block space so high cost to users instead of compensated miners. If you want to build a very expressive scripting language, might very hard & expensive to fit into Bitcoin tx vs CPoBB external content of unlimited size in a committed hash. Same as CPoBB is Bitcoin-aware so can respond to Bitcoin being sent but without source of Bitcoins like burning no way to do any trust minimized Bitcoin-pegs it can control fully.
Few extra notes from my talks with people:
fees must be high to be included in next block (and helps pay and bribe bitcoin miners), RBF use is encouraged to cancel late transactions
what if not enough burners, just passive nodes? you can burn smallest amount of bitcoin yourself when you have a transaction you want to go through
using commit hashes on bitcoin to lock altcoin state isn't new (e.g. kmd) but usually those rely on some federation or permissioned proof of stake mechanism with no real costs. this is combination of both.
this is not exactly like counterparty's embedded consensus as block data and transactions are outside Bitcoin, but consensus is derived with help of embedded on Bitcoin data.
deterministic randomness (e.g. via that block's hash) could be used to assign winning sidechain block weighted by amount burned to allow occasional blocks formed by others curbing success rate of censorship by highest burner
wants to transition away from using proof of burn via tunable proofs and native proof of work (whitepaper)
a dominant premine (trust maximized) relative to emission that defeats the purpose of distributing control over incentives (figure 3 in tokenpaper suggests premine still ~30%-70% by year 2050)
variable emission rate "adaptive mint and burn" makes supply unpredictable (and possibly gameable)
additional rewards that aren't trust minimized like "app mining" and "user incentives" possibly gameable with premine
election of a leader includes their own PoW to be elected even at start (5% cap), why lol?
blockstack also suggested use of randomness that depends on that block so Bitcoin miners that already spent energy mining that block can't just re-do it to get picked at no cost
if can burn bitcoins directly via op_return tx would help to use 1 less output and be provably prunable for utxo set (not sure if that's relayed as standard)
Main questions to you:
why not? (other than blocktime)
can this be done without an altcoin? (Not sure and don't think so w/o compromising unforgeable costliness and thus trust minimization. At least it's not using an altcoin that's clearly centralized.)
how to make it less detectable by Bitcoin miners? ( BMM could use some techniques described here: https://twitter.com/SomsenRuben/status/1210040270328254464 ) ( Perhaps since sidechain nodes receive proposed blocks independently and can figure out their hash, the commit message ( sidechain id + block commit + miner address) can be hashed one more time before its placed on Bitcoin, making miners unaware until after Bitcoin block is found that this is that sidechain's burn. Sidechain block producers would have to delay sidechain block propagation until after Bitcoin block is propagated, 10 minutes blocktime helps here. Hiding the fact that Bitcoin is burnt until after the fact is another possibly important matter. )
Should reward be split between all valid blocks or just winner gets all? (Blockstacks approach does not reward blocks marked by different from leader chaintip. That seems dangerous since sidechain tx sorting would be difficult to match and could take significant time to be compensated for perfectly valid work and coins burned. It doesn't seem as necessary in burning since we're not expending costs based on only one previous block version, the costs are independent of block assembly. Tradeoff is between making it easier for independent "mining" of sidechain and making it easier to validate for full nodes on sidechain)
Looking for someone who, ideally, spends all day at a computer, doing something easy / boring.
I do "computer stuff" for a living, and my job doesn't have much oversight, so I've been developing a lot of bad habits. It's totally out of control - I am at work 10-12 hours a day and spend the whole time screwing around online, promising myself that I'll get started in five minutes. I'm very competent when working, but most weeks I spend literally <2hr on task. If you want to indulge in my self-loathing, look through my post history. What I needis basically a babysittesupervisor over my shoulder (virtually). I'm in the EST/EDT time zone, work M-F, and have flextime: averaging a 09:00-17:00 job but many days being a couple hours long/short. That said, if you can squeeze 4 hours of no-BS work out of me in a day, that's a win. I need someone to keep an eye on my work and ask me if anything looks suspicious, or I'm AFK for a while, have a basic idea of what I'm working on. I'll be sending frequent updates (10-30 min apart) on how stuff is going, with screenshots a good percentage of the time to prevent me from bullshitting you. Basically, you stay on top of me like those annoying micromanaging bosses that everyone hates. Harassment is done over IM - I'm flexible on which one. Payment:$20/day - PayPal, bitcoins, dogecoins, paper check in the mail, I'll accommodate you. If you want help with learning or doing something related to programming, linux, spreadsheets, k8s/containerization, I'll throw that in for free*. Don't bother offering <$20 - in my experience it needs to be worth a chunk to both you and me so that you give a shit about the task, and I am slightly pained by the expenditure, but not so much that I want to lie and fake success early. Preferences:The more miserable your life, and the more you need that $20/day, the better. I used to be the guy on the other side - too much screen time, need a tiny bit of money, don't want real job. Multiple offers:Last time I offered $10 andstillgot too many bids. Just give a brief description of your circumstances, I'm gonna pick five people, if you don't get a response by midnight EST then it's a no. For the five people, I'll arrange them in random order, and do paid test days. Once I get a competent match (about ½ - ⅓ of applicants in my experience), I'll "hire" them cancel those still waiting, =\ sorry. PM me if you're game, or comment to ask for additional information. I'll close and update this post when I get 5 PMs that seem promising. \)OntwooccasionsI'vespentallnighthelpinganacquaintancegettheirfinalprojectinCS101fromgarbagecodetomostly-working.One of mypreviouspaidaccountabilitysupervisorstradedacoupleoffreedaystodebugsomeproblemswithapache2and,IIRC,aphpscript. But if you just need like, 45 min of help every now and then, we can bang it out, no need to sacrifice your money.
Lastupdated2018-01-29 This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information. There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!
Lightning Network White Paper - The protocol has changed since this original paper, but covers the mid-level mechanics of the Lightning Network with an emphasis on the smart contracts that make it trustless
If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily, Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above. All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-) For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user. Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
These email addresses were used on domain registrations, forums, payment processors, and a variety of services linking back to Gerald Cotten (more on this later)
Given the preponderance of inexpensive, cheap and more powerful options for name servers (such as Cloudflare, which was used by QuadrigaCX), and Cotten’s preoccupation with security, using proxy services and hiding his IP we can assume this would have been primarily for security reasons
Cotten used the “contentbysceptre.com” domain in connection with his “Sceptre’s Spectacular Content Services” on BlackHatWorld
Cotten posted an advertisement on Blackhatworld for a programmer for a “Website like Bitstamp”, which was just a few months prior to launching QuadrigaCX in December 2013. It’s a short timeframe but we know it fits because QuadrigaCX uses the generic WLOX exchange script, which dramatically reduces the work required to build a crypto exchange (Note: we didn’t say a great crypto exchange). This is mentioned in a post on coinforum.ca where user @yerofeyev admits that another exchange, Taurs (founded with PATRYN, mentioned earlier) uses Quadriga code based on WLOX. Strangely that thread is no longer accessible (https://coinforum.ca/discussion/2448/taurs-soft-launch) as the whole coinforum.ca website has been mysteriously shut down in the last few days
Cotten posted a number of threads asking for advice on how to monetise his network of sites, includijg the aforementioned proxy sites, and his celebrity news sites, including celebritydaily.net. Here’s the link to that post as well “BHW - Hiring Celebrity Article Writer”
Cotten’s profile on BlackHatWorld was initially Sceptre and later changed to “Murodch1337” , perhaps after QuadrigaCX began to become popular and he realised he might need to conceal links to his past. Link to Cottens BlackHatWorld profile here: https://www.blackhatworld.com/members/murdoch1337.273596/
We know form other research and analysis that both Sceptre and Patryn were highly active in the HYIP/Ponzi/exchanger space (more on this later)
In conclusion, we believe that Gerald Cotten, QuadrigaCX CEO, was known as "Sceptre" on BlackHatWorld and other sites.
This has been a QCXINT release. If you have more information regarding QuadrigaCX, Michael Patryn (aka Omar Patryn, Omar Dhanini, Voleur), Gerald Cotten (aka Sceptre), please send to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) . Your submission will be 100% confidential. Update 23/04: Reddit dropped the entire post whilst editing so it had to be re-uploaded.
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary. The halving countdown can be found here.
Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works.
Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
Low fee - Transactions fees can vary between a few cents and a few dollars depending on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate the fee automatically but you can view current fees here.
Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found here. Bitcoin statistics can be found here, here and here. Developer resources can be found here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here. The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here. Scaling resources here, and of course the whitepaper that started it all.
Where can I buy bitcoins?
BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com and Howtobuybitcoin.io are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also, check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Cashila or Bitwage. Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoins
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, there are many software wallet options here. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor or Ledger is recommended. A more advanced option is to secure them yourself using paper wallets generated offline. Some popular mobile and desktop options are listed below and most are cross platform.
If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Coinbase or Xapo but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Another interesting use case for physical storage/transfer is the Opendime. Opendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin by physically passing it along so it's anonymous and tangible like cash. Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! 2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out. If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. Bitseed is an easy option for getting set up. You can view the global node distribution here.
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)
The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
1,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
1,000,000 per bitcoin
Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
100,000,000 per bitcoin
Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval. Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
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