What is Margin Trading? definition and meaning

Arbitrage opportunities in options - how options are priced, explained in layman's terms - without resorting to the BS pricing model

Arbitrage opportunities in options - how options are priced, explained in layman's terms - without resorting to the BS pricing model
Alright retards, I've been laid off at work due to beervirus and I've been eyeing and toying with the idea to get back into options trading. I'm writing this post to raise the bar for discussion on this sub, I'm tired of seeing just memes. We'll never match WSB unless there is a healthy mix of dankass memes and geniass discussions.
Now, when it comes to options, I am completely self-taught (completely from first principles, back in 2008, before you autists came up with the idea of watching videos on youtube). Since I am completely self-taught, my perspective will be different from the people who learnt this stuff while studying MBA/finance courses/NSE accredited investing courses. So if what I'm saying is different from what you've heard from the dude who swindled you of 20K for two days of options education or your gay BF's live-in partner, remember when it comes to maths, there are many ways of approaching a problem, ultimately, all are the same - profit means account balance goes up, loss means a loss post on ISB goes up.
Now, I'm assuming that you understand how options work. If not, I suggest heading to Zerodha's Varsity to read up on options. If you're too lazy for this, get your micro-dick outta options, this is a man's game, surprise butt-sex awaits amateurs.
I'm also assuming that you've come to realise that the sustainable way to make money in options is to write options. Unless you've got Trump or Ambani on speed dial to get access to news before it becomes news, YOLOing whatever rent money you have on buying options will blow up your account, eventually.
Writing options also means the possibility of account balance going tits up is a real possibility. You gotta, gotta, gotta measure and manage your risk. You can do this only when you understand options as well as your dick.
Towards this, I intend to put up a bunch of posts (depending on many of you shit heads are still reading at this point) that comment about little things that are more of 'wisdom' than 'education'.
The example below talks about currency derivatives. Why currency? Read below:
  • Lower margin needed. I can short a CE/PE contract with only Rs.2000, unlike the >Rs. 70,000 for index contracts. You get to learn, play and wisen up with an order of magnitude less money than with Nifty or Banknifty contracts.
  • More stable underlying. When you're shorting contracts, the last thing you want is the underlying asset going crazy like a broncho during rodeo.
  • Less autistic crowd in the currency market. While banknifty options attract retards like flies to poop, currency derivatives attract a more educated crowd.
  • Sooner or later, you end up acquiring a more balanced education on economics as a whole, rather than the shit fest that goes on in the local circles.
  • The more contracts you can short, the more strategies you can pursue
  • Decent hedging is possible without throwing away all of your potential profits
  • Lesser stress (anybody else going through premature hairloss or is it just me?) because of points outlined above.
Alright, today, I'm going point how the put-call parity works and by extension, show proof for 'efficient markets' by pointing out how opportunities for arbitrage is pretty much non existent, so you guys can cool it with the whole 'market manipulators' knee jerk reaction.
Alright, to start off, here's the current spot rate of the USD-INR pair:
https://preview.redd.it/qup28ay567j51.jpg?width=452&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b79ef1a3480e5cbafa42547143c651397ec57f13
Here's today's USD-INR futures closing rate for Sep expiry:
https://preview.redd.it/krghirc677j51.jpg?width=511&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=60d52b785baa8a1cd240d0df7949a48c8391ba2d
The difference between spot and futures rates is due to differences in what is construed as 'risk-free' interest rates in the US and in India. Check out this video if you want to understand why the Sep futures is trading at a premium of 27 paisa to the spot rate.
Alright, so the deal is, if you buy 1 futures contract @ 74.49, unless the USDINR exchange rate rises by 27 paisa at the end of Sep (i.e. a spot rate of 74.49) you won't make a profit (ignoring brokerage and stuff). If the exchange rate were to remain the same without any change, you stand to lose (0.27 * 1000, currency derivatives have a lot size of 1000) Rs. 270 per lot. Even worse if the rupee were to appreciate (i.e. exchange spot rate goes down).
Now bear with me if the next few paras are exceedingly boorish, I need to spoon feed people who aren't used to currency derivatives. My strategies are mostly aimed at playing a more risk balanced play, something that yields consistent returns which can be compounded. 10% profit compounded monthly gives 314% growth per year, 3.5% profit compounded weekly gives ~600% growth per year.
Given how the USDINR rate is crashing, one way to profit would be to short a futures contract (duh!).
The orange line indicates the current USDINR exchange rate
As indicated above, if the exchange rate does nothing and remains as is till end of Sep, each lot of USDINR futures shorted yields about Rs. 250 in profit (for something that takes up Rs.3000 in margin, that's a >8% profit in return). Things look even better if the exchange rate were to fall further.
The problem is that things heat up quickly if the exchange rate were to go up. Ideally we would want to hedge against it (which also reduces the margin needed drastically). One way to hedge it would be to buy a at-the-money call (74.25CE @ rate of Rs. 0.555 -> Rs. 555 per lot (i.e 0.555*1000)).
https://preview.redd.it/ze16kyphv7j51.jpg?width=588&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3c2bba9fb314beff309671f03a013e69e08f4e0
Having purchased a call option, the P/L curve now looks like:
The max loss is now limited to Rs. 315
The keen-eyed among you will recognise the above P/L curve as one that matches that of a put option. By shorting a futures contract and buying a call option (both with same expiry), we have created a synthetic put option that would have costed us Rs. 315 (0.315*1000) for one lot.
Now, why go through all of this hassle if we can get the same returns by just buying a put option? Makes sense, as long as we can purchase the 74.25 strike put option at a price lesser than Rs. 0.315 (see above).
Let's see what the put options are going for:
Well, how about that...
The market price of 74.25 puts are exactly the same price as our synthetic put. While the synthetic put came in at Rs. 0.315, the put costs another 0.005 extra to avoid the trouble of shorting a futures contract and buying a call at the same time. This is not by chance, big trading desks have algos (trading bots for the virgins here) that keep an eye out for price disparities. In this case, if someone were to be willing to pay more, the algos would compete amongst themselves to sell the puts at any price above 0.32. And if someone were to be willing to sell a put for less than 0.315, the algos would immediately buy.
The price of the puts move in sync with the prices of the futures and call contracts. Conversely, we can create a synthetic call, and you will notice that the price of the synthetic call works out to be the same as the market price for the 74.25 strike call. We can also create a synthetic futures contract the same way.
The prices of derivatives aren't decided willy-nilly. They are precisely calculated at all times, which forms the basis for the best bid/ask prices. There is no room left for someone to come in and make free money via arbitraging using synthetic contracts.
If you found this insightful, and would like more of this sort of posts, let me know.
Options when used properly, can be used to generate risk adjusted returns that are commensurate with the amount of risk you are taking. If you are YOLO-ing, sure, you can double or triple your money, because you can also lose 100% of your margin. Conversely, you can aim for small, steady returns and compound the crap out of them. Play the long game, don't be penny wise and pound foolish.
submitted by circuit_brain to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

Posting to answer some common/repeated questions to answer all who have approached me for options (day) trading after my Posts A, B and C

Some of you might have already come across my (4) posts I made a few weeks back, some may not have.
Here are the links again to Part A , Part B , Part C, Part D if you're interested.
I've been approached by a lot of people for general advice even through my comments on various other posts, but especially after I shared my posts with the public. I have said it many times before but here it is again: (Day-)trading is something you've got to make work for yourself. There's no one out there who will truly hold your hand telling you to press the BUY and SELL button other than yourself. Your risk tolerance may not be same as someone else's whose bankroll is perhaps 30x that of your own.
Always know your numbers (one of my tips/rules - re-read all my posts please - might answer some of your questions you may have already) and keep things always in perspective. If you make $120 in 3 minutes, you've got to understand that someone else might work for this kind of money all day/week/month in other parts of the world.
Have an open mind about reading/learning from other people's successes and failures. Take the information and incorporate into your own trading to your own advantage.
Don't get greedy because there is no true finish line with trading. Always trade at your own pace. Some days might be less profitable, some more. The market's always right, and you can't "force" it to give you a specific amount every day just because you think so.
Trade properly daily and don't focus on the $$$. The $$$ will follow (eventually) if you trade properly. In the end, making $233 in a day is not a life changing amount, but it is a life changing habit if you can be consistent with your trading, because ultimately small profits will and do add up over time.

Instead of responding to some of the questions from others rather individually, I've decided to make another post ("I'll call this Post D") just to get everyone a chance to read up on any of my previous posts again (there may be additional info you may have missed in the comments that was added after you went through my posts originally) and to save myself a lot of time basically. I can then simply and shamelessly refer them to this very post and hope they'll get a better understanding on what I'm trying to tell them, and how they should approach trading for themselves while answering some of their questions without me having to repeat myself over and over.
The beautiful thing also (if some of you are not aware of it yet) is that reddit has the capability for you to go through someone's post history if you're interested, intrigued or perhaps even fascinated by their responses or comments. You're free to check out what they have said in the past. I think some people sometimes love to go the shortcut route by simply just asking questions rather than take their own time to do simple online searches for information that is already freely available.
Shortcuts are not to be taken for many reason on anything with your life. Period. "Shortcut driving" on the highway might get you killed. Using shortcuts at work might get you in trouble. Shortcuts in trading trying to go for the home-run trade instead of focusing on singles can cause a major set-back on your account. Don't do shortcuts. If you want to do or learn something, do it properly. Put in all your energy, time and focus, and you may end up acquiring just the right attitude/discipline/skill to help propel you into the right direction of success.

Now to the actual reason of this actual post as I want to illustrate the frequent questions with a bunch of screenshots and following information:

PDT rule is not affected by cash accounts. You don't need 25k+ to dive into the world of your preferred choice of trading. Talk or contact your brokerage firm to make the switch and trade from a cash account. I am merely talking about buying option premium if that's what you have interest in like I've been doing. I'm scalping with options. I "day-trade" them because I open and close a trade and am always back to cash at the end of the day. My "day-trading" is typically less than 30 minutes of total time spent.
If you want stocks or utilize other techniques/strategies that involve selling premium, such as spreads for instance, you probably would be more interested in a margin account. In that case, have a margin account on the side so you can utilize that way of trading as well.
Also, if you come from the Robinhood world (as I I'm approached by this so many times through DMs and chat requests), to my knowledge RH starts out a brand new account on margin. You will get flagged for PDT if you don't specifically request a change (which by logic would mean you have to wait several days before you can trade after you deposit money into your account; on margin, those funds are available instantly).

I hope this answer the many questions I get daily on how I can avoid PDT with just a $2-4k account.

updated progress (06/19/2020) is here

Here's how I trade (and I'll give you a timeline with screenshots along with some personal notes/thoughts):

Friday 05/29/2020: in the morning when I mentally/verbally go over my own trading rules to myself (took a screenshot of my accounts).
Proceeded to trade AMZN twice on cash account (you see the result there)
Monday 06/01/2020: sometimes tough to work in trades due to having meetings on Mondays at work. Sometimes meetings happen sooner, sometimes they happen later and I still manage to place a couple trades or so. This time I just had a chance for one quick scalp. Don't get greedy, there's always another day/trade. Focus at work. Trading + distractions don't combine well.
Tuesday 06/02/2020: with meetings out of the way from Monday, I should have more chances to spot/do my usual trading (as work allows).
Wednesday 06/03/2020: just had 1 trade on cash account. Initiated a ZM spread trade to hold overnight and you'll see that I closed it next morning.
Thursday 06/04/2020: 3 scalp trades on cash, 2 spread trades
Thursday 06/04/2020: Pay myself (withdrawal). This resets my accounts back to a combined $3,500 again (2,000 in cash account for scalping and $1,500 in margin account for selling weekly spreads).
Friday 06/05/2020: 1 NFLX scalp trade, 1 spread trade on margin (notice the PDT warning coming up again, so I'll be more patient with margin account unless I see a good trade opportunity or the warning falls off again in a few days).
Saturday 06/06/2020: a quick morning screenshot of both accounts again
Monday 06/08/2020: Had my morning meetings again. By the time I came back to my office and at the computer, I thought I already missed out on all the morning action. But for just the sheer idea of having some trades, I went ahead and did a couple quick scalp trades. TSLA wanted to pay me more if I was a little bit more patient, but in the end, I'll take what I can get. BYND spread trade on margin account wasn't moving quick enough as I had hoped, so I closed it for a tiny profit. Overall, end result is nothing to be proud of, but hey, like I said before, can't always "force" the market to give you what you want. Some days are less profitable, some are more profitable, gotta go with the flow and not get greedy. The spread (day) trade now gave me more dire warning as I was at the max of 3 trades within 5 trading days at this point. Time to do another internal transfer (next morning).
Tuesday 06/09/2020: Morning internal transfer completed, now it's back to simply just scalping on cash account until PDT warning falls off before I do any other spread trades.
Wednesday 06/10/2020: morning screenshot of both accounts (margin has no funds as I can't really use it for any daytrading of course at the moment). I'm only scalp trading on cash account for a little while (no PDT rule affects cash accounts). TDA refunds ATM fees on any ATM world-wide. Needed $200 cash that evening, so what better ways to take $200 out at ATM from today's AMZN's scalp trade.
Thursday 06/11/2020: PDT warning improved back to 2 day-trades left for margin account. Decided to do another internal transfer from cash account to margin so I can trade from both. Worked out out great again as both were profitable for the day.
Friday 06/12/2020: Took another quick morning screenshot of accounts upon arriving at work. Internally transferred funds to cash account so I don't get tempted to "risk" PDT on margin account.
Saturday 06/13/2020: quick snapshot again of accounts
Monday 06/15/2020: Blah, Monday morning meetings again. Didn't get to trade until like 10:20am ET. Back to only scalp trading on cash account for a while though (still have PDT warning up for my margin account)
Tuesday 06/16/2020: Only managed to get in quick scalp trade in the morning. Greed kills, so I went back to doing some work.
Funny thing is, yet another person approached me on reddit chat, asking how I trade or how they should start out with trading options.
I tried to explain to them to go slow by simply doing 1 lot contract trades; perhaps spend $100-150 per contract and just get through the learning experience of how emotions can affect a trader, etc. That person was still confused, so I went ahead and proceeded to simply place a few trades to illustrate. Nothing major, but that should tell you, with the right attitude and skill set, you should be able to play any direction (played SPY PUTS and CALLS per screenshot). Actually wanted to place a few more trades to get to a true $50+, but work got busy again, so I just left it at that.
Needless to say, the other person was very appreciative that I actually went and did real trades for illustration purposes as they could not believe at first that they should be able to make $50 a day "consistently". They've been trying and trying but always failed.
I wanted to reinforce that small profits add up: $5 buck here, $17 bucks there, $12 bucks there, after 3-5 trades, there's your $50 and you barely broke a sweat by "trading small".
Wednesday 6/17/2020: Usual morning screenshot of accounts. Managed to get a screenshot after 1st scalp trade at 8:37. (I'm in central, so that's 7 minutes after market open). And then did another screenshot after my second scalp trade on FB. I'm done for the day (again). All it took was 2 fairly quick trades. It's not even 9:00am CST yet and I'm already done for the "day".
Thursday 06/18/2020: Morning screenshot of accounts as usual again. Only managed to get in 1 trade due to busy work. An hour later as I managed to glance at the market again, I realized: Oh shit! It then darned on me. Look, the PDT warning fell off! It's Thursday already. Maybe it's time to internally transfer funds from cash account to margin again and perhaps I get to spot a spread trade on my margin account. Success! I'll take a $100 for barely lifting a finger for "the day".
Friday 06/19/2020: Morning snapshot of accounts again. 2k on cash account. Plenty of fire/buying power for scalp trading. Let's utilize margin account too since there is still no PDT warning. Again, success. Sold AMZN call spreads with 0 DTE (same day expiration) for very directional strong bias. Scalp traded spreads basically and it was yet another successful trade.
Saturday 06/20/2020: Another quick snapshot off the accounts. Hm, maybe I pay myself again soon (remember, last time I paid myself was June 4th). Or maybe I'll grow it a little more. We'll see. Ready for Monday? :)
Imgur list snapshot

Phew, alright, that took me a while to get together. I hope I edited and added all correct IMGUR links to all dates, etc. If not, let me know and I'll be glad to edit and get it corrected.

There ya go. You can avoid PDT if you asked me those questions in a DM or through chat requests. You can make consistent money. Remember, trade at your own pace. $30 a day is still $30 a day (insurance companies would love to get your $5 / day for reference!). Trade properly. Be consistent. Study your own actions/reactions/emotions. Be confident!

If you're sending me DMs and chat requests, I'll probably sent you to this post for a reason as this truly saves me time having to repeat my answers over and over. Read all my posts including comments particularly for additional information. I've made it my best to answer everyone who commented. Have a wonderful evening and be ready for Monday trading (blah, work - morning meeting(s) again, but we'll see how it goes).
submitted by fearloss to options [link] [comments]

KuCoin Academy Les 12: leer marginhandel vanaf nul: inschakelen, lenen, handelen en terugbetalen

Nieuw bij crypto? Maakt u zich geen zorgen. Blijf op de hoogte van KuCoin en binnenkort word je een crypto-expert!
We hebben het KuCoin Academy programma gelanceerd, dat onderwerpen behandelt van crypto-basics tot handelskennis. Na het leren van elke les kun je beloningspunten verdienen! De beste studenten met de hoogste punten eind augustus krijgen KuCoin Merchandise en KuCoin VIP-kwalificaties!
Hier komt de 12e les: leer marginhandel vanaf nul: inschakelen, lenen, handelen en terugbetalen (https://medium.com/kucoinexchange/kucoin-academy-lesson-12-learn-margin-trading-from-scratch-enabling-borrowing-trading-and-b3b67fbd5690 )
In deze les leer je: * Hoe margehandel mogelijk te maken * Hoe de hoofdsom over te boeken naar een margerekening * Hoe u meer tokens kunt lenen * Hoe te handelen * Hoe u uw positie sluit * Hoe terugbetalen
Nadat je het artikel hebt doorgenomen, maak je deze quiz (https://forms.gle/7A7WCPLxuh3WvF3bA ) af om tot wel 100 punten te verdienen! Ook hebben we elke werkdag om 15:00:00 (UTC + 8) een pop upquiz in de KuCoin KuCoin Telegram Groep, dus doe mee als je kunt!
Blijf op de hoogte van KuCoin en laten we samen leren en verdienen!
Om onze eerdere artikelen te lezen, bekijk het officiële Officiele KuCoin Academy Medium kanaal (https://medium.com/@KuCoinAcademy)
Heb je nog geen KuCoin account? Meld u dan hier aan: https://www.kucoin.com/ucentesignup?rcode=244g2&lang=en_US
submitted by KuCoinNetherlands to u/KuCoinNetherlands [link] [comments]

KuCoin Academy Les 11: Er komt een bullmarkt aan, maar uw geld is beperkt. Hoe kunt u uw winst vergroten?

Nieuw bij crypto? Maakt u zich geen zorgen. Blijf op de hoogte van KuCoin en binnenkort word je een crypto expert!
We hebben het KuCoin Academy-programma gelanceerd, dat onderwerpen behandelt van crypto-basics tot handelskennis. Na het leren van elke les kun je beloningspunten verdienen! De beste studenten met de hoogste punten eind augustus krijgen KuCoin Merchandise en KuCoin VIP-kwalificaties!
Hier komt de 11e les: er komt een bullmarkt aan, maar uw geld is beperkt. Hoe kunt u uw winst vergroten? In deze les leer je: * Wat is marginhandel? * Voordelen en nadelen van marginhandel * Margin trading voorbeeld * Wat is de handel in futures? * Voordelen en nadelen van futures handel * Wat zijn de verschillen tussen margin en futures handel?
Nadat je het artikel hebt doorgenomen, maak je deze quiz af om tot wel 100 punten te verdienen! Ook hebben we elke werkdag om 15:00:00 (UTC + 8) een pop-upquiz in de KuCoin Telegram groep, dus doe mee als je kunt!
Blijf op de hoogte van KuCoin en laten we samen leren en verdienen!
Om onze eerdere artikelen te lezen, bekijk het Officiele KuCoin Academy Medium kanaal Heb je nog geen KuCoin account? Meld u dan hier aan
submitted by KuCoinNetherlands to u/KuCoinNetherlands [link] [comments]

Do your part ( a step by step guide )

Quoting user IronNoggin over @ outdoorsmenforum.ca all credit for steps 2-6 goes to him!
original post
A french version of this guide will be put together in the days to come, if anyone that is bilingual wants to pitch in, send me a message, please. I would appreciate it.
Time to start rolling hard on this folks.

ENGLISH VERSION

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Step 1:

Sign the e-2574 and e-2576. Sponsored by The Honourable Michelle Rempel Garner) (Conservative) and Todd Doherty (Conservative)

Petition to the Prime Minister

Whereas:
We, the undersigned, citizens of Canada, call upon the Prime Minister to immediately scrap his government’s May 1, 2020, Order in Council decision related to confiscating legally owned firearms and instead pass legislation that will target criminals, stop the smuggling of firearms into Canada, go after those who illegally acquire firearms, and apologize to legal firearms owners in Canada.

------------------------------------------

Petition to the Government of Canada

Whereas:
We, the undersigned, citizens of Canada, call upon the Government of Canada to immediately repeal the Order in Council issued May 1, 2020.

DO NOT FORGET TO CONFIRM YOUR IDENTITY BY EMAIL AFTER SIGNING OR YOUR SIGNATURE WILL NOT COUNT

It may take up to a few hours to receive said email. The system is overloaded currently.
https://petitions.ourcommons.ca/en/Petition/Details?Petition=e-2574
https://petitions.ourcommons.ca/en/Petition/Details?Petition=e-2576

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Step 2:

I fired off the following letter this morning, and am now posting it on several forums so that others can copy it and send to our Governor General over their own name:
May 4, 2020

An Open Letter to Her Excellency Julie Payette the Governor General of Canada
First I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate you for your performance in your role as the Governor General of Canada. Your professionalism is both steadfast and admirable.

To the point of this letter:

On May 1, 2020, Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party of Canada, collectively constituting a minority government in Canada, intentionally set out to subvert and thwart parliamentary procedure in Canada. In their haste to make political points on the recent tragedy in Nova Scotia, they decided to forgo debate in the House over one of the more significant pieces of Legislation they have introduced in their new term. This action was and is an obvious misuse of the Order In Council process on the part of a government uncertain if their proposed Legislation would survive open parliamentary debate.

Fortunately in Canada there exists a “Safety Net” designed explicitly to prevent such forms of abuse, and that safety net resides within you and your office. As relating to this matter, the Criminal Code of Canada specifically states:

Criminal Code Version of section 117.15 from 2015-06-18 to 2020-04-21: Regulations

117.15 (1) Subject to subsection (2), the Governor in Council may make regulations prescribing anything that by this Part is to be or may be prescribed. 
Marginal note: Restriction

(2) In making regulations, the Governor in Council may not prescribe anything to be a prohibited firearm, a restricted firearm, a prohibited weapon, a restricted weapon, a prohibited device or prohibited ammunition if, in the opinion of the Governor in Council, the thing to be prescribed is reasonable for use in Canada for hunting or sporting purposes.

Justice Minister David Lametti himself provided evidence of support for these firearms’ application for hunting purposes when he stated: “There will be an exception for Indigenous people’s exercising a section 35 hunting right, as well as those who use the weapon for hunting to feed themselves or their family,”.

Many of the listed firearms have been used both historically and at present for hunting. Classic examples include the Ruger Ranch Rifle (a common item on many farms and ranches for both hunting and predator control) and the majority of bolt action rifles the proposed list encompasses.

The balance of the firearms on the list are currently employed for shooting sports – target shooting and competitive shooting sports. All of those which were previously classed as “Restricted” were only made available for individual ownership for the specifically noted qualification of sporting purpose use.
There is clear and compelling evidence that many firearms on this poorly designed list meet the criteria of “Reasonable use in Canada for hunting or sporting purposes”.

While exemptions to the citation above exist, they are based upon insubstantial change or urgency:

Exception — minor changes

(2) A regulation made under section 117 may be made without being laid before either House of Parliament if the federal Minister is of the opinion that the changes made by the regulation to an existing regulation are so immaterial or insubstantial that section 118 should not be applicable in the circumstances.
Marginal note: Exception — urgency

(3) A regulation made under paragraph 117(i), (l), (m), (n), (o), (q), (s) or (t) may be made without being laid before either House of Parliament if the federal Minister is of the opinion that the making of the regulation is so urgent that section 118 should not be applicable in the circumstances
No-one in Canada is suggesting that the proposed Legislation is “so immaterial or insubstantial” that the OIC was necessary or should be passed forthwith.

The very design of the Legislation itself precludes any overwhelming “urgency” in that owners are automatically granted a two-year amnesty, and that provisions for “grandfathering” (which will allow owners to retain these items for life) are incorporated. The only urgency relating to this matter is centered on the behavior of Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party in their headlong rush to capitalize on the tragic happenings in Nova Scotia recently. There exists NO “clear and present danger” from the most vetted citizens this country has at this point.

Those exemptions are the only two allowed by the Canadian Criminal Code. The Legislation as presented clearly does not qualify with either definition.
I thereby call on you, as Governor-General of Canada to deny the Order In Council as presented as prescribed in the Canadian Criminal Code Section 117.15 (2). I strongly urge you to preserve the integrity and sanctity of your Office that passing this wrongfully decreed OIC would corrupt.

I would appreciate the courtesy of a written response at your convenience.

A Very Concerned Citizen,

Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Address:
Her Excellency Julie Payette the Governor-General of Canada Rideau Hall 1 Sussex Drive Ottawa, ON K1A 0A1


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Step 3:

By exempting "aboriginal people" in Canada, Trudeau committed a violation of the The Canadian Human Rights Act.
Any who are not of that description are being openly discriminated against based on race by your own government.
Here’s the step by step process to file an action with the Canadian Human Rights Commission: File the complaint here
Put your own words in or alter theirs to suit your situation.
First Step (Make a Complaint)
  1. I was harassed
  2. Did this happen on reserve? No.
  3. Who were you dealing with? Government of Canada
  4. Why do you think this happened? My race and My National or Ethnic Origin
  5. Where did it happen? Your province or residence
Next Step (File a Complaint)
  1. Who did this happen to? Me
  2. I am a: Canadian Citizen or Permanent Resident
  3. Where did this happen: Canada
  4. City: Your city of residence
  5. Province: Your province of residence
  6. Who were you dealing with? Government of Canada
  7. Name of business, organization or association:Justin TrudeauLiberal Party of Canada
  8. Is it ongoing? Yes
  9. When did it start? 2020-05-01
  10. Click on Next Page
  11. What happened? (Discriminatory acts):I did not receive a serviceI was harassedOthers
  12. Why do you think this happened?My raceMy national or ethnic origin
  13. Next page
  14. Tell us your story:On May 1, 2020, Justin Trudeau issued an immediate and blanket ban on 1,500 weapons. He further stated that the banned weapons were not used for hunting. Following the announcement, Justice Minister David Lametti stated: “There will be an exception for Indigenous people’s exercising a section 35 hunting right, as well as those who use the weapon for hunting to feed themselves or their family. They may continue using firearms that were previously non-restricted for these purposes until a suitable replacement can be acquired.” Allowing "First Nations" in Canada to use 1,500 weapons banned for other Canadians who are not "First Nations" unduly discriminate me as a white Canadian of European ancestry, based on my race, as well as national and ethnic origin.
  15. Next page
  16. Contact Information: Enter your actual contact information
  17. Next page
  18. Do you have legal representation? No
  19. Are you a member of a trade union? No
  20. Next page
  21. Agreements: Click on everything
  22. Submit

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Step 4:

For those who are on Facebook - Join the newly created CCFR Action Group and Get Involved!!
CCFR Action Facebook Group

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Step 5:

For those of us in BC: Regardless of your thoughts / position regarding the BCWF, they have provided a platform to voice your opposition to the draconian moves by Trudeau et al. Take advantage of that!
BCWF - YOUR FIREARMS RIGHTS

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Step 6:

Every revocation of registration must be accompanied by instructions on how to appeal. It's called a Section 74 appeal. Every individual filing and proceeding will tie them up for years. File individually for each affected firearm you own & make it as painful as possible for them on their end.
Canadian Laws Website
NFA - What to do

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Step 7:

Contact all concerned MP's about this issue. Voice your disopinion, your intentions to vote, and your potential monetary pledges. Please take the time to customize your messages with a few personal words.

Dear Glen Motz, MP.
Today, I am writing to you as a concerned Canadian (a Quebecer at that). What the minority liberal government has done is unacceptable and undemocratic.
As you are probably well aware of, on May 1, 2020, Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Party of Canada, collectively constituting a minority government in Canada, intentionally set out to subvert and thwart parliamentary procedure in Canada. In their haste to make political points on the recent tragedy in Nova Scotia, they decided to forgo debate in the House over one of the more significant pieces of would-be Legislation (now regulation) they have introduced in their new term. This action was and is an obvious misuse of the Order In Council process on the part of a government uncertain if their proposed Legislation would survive open parliamentary debate.
I thereby call on you, as a member of parliament of Canada to deny the Order In Council as presented as prescribed in the Canadian Criminal Code Section 117.15 (2). I strongly urge you to preserve the integrity and sanctity of our country that passing this wrongfully decreed OIC would corrupt.
I am personally willing to dedicate monetary resources to entities that will be fighting this anti-democratic Order in Council. This issue will be a deciding factor in my voting intentions for the next federal election.
I would appreciate the courtesy of a written response at your convenience.
A Very Concerned Citizen,

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Step 8:

For those of us who can afford it. We need to financially support our advocacy groups & political parties who will be at the forefront of this entire debacle.
Conservative Party of Canada (No other party has voiced opposition. As of right now they are our only political voice on this matter)
The CCFR
CSAAA
CSSA-CILA
NFA

VERSION EN FRANÇAIS

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Étape 1:

Signez les pétitions suivantes: e-2574 et e-2576. Parrainé par l'honorable Michelle Rempel Garner) (conservateur) et Todd Doherty (conservateur)

Pétition au premier ministre

Attendu que :
Nous, soussignés, citoyens du Canada, prions le premier ministre d’abolir immédiatement le décret pris le 1er mai 2020 par son gouvernement sur la confiscation d’armes à feu détenues légalement, d’adopter plutôt des mesures législatives qui visent les criminels, de mettre un terme à l’introduction clandestine d’armes à feu au Canada, de sévir contre ceux qui acquièrent des armes à feu de manière illégale, et de présenter ses excuses aux propriétaires légitimes d’armes à feu au Canada.

----------------------------------------------

Pétition au gouvernement du Canada

Attendu que :
Nous, soussignés, citoyens du Canada, prions le gouvernement du Canada d’abroger immédiatement le décret publié le 1er mai 2020.

N'OUBLIEZ PAS DE CONFIRMER VOTRE IDENTITÉ PAR COURRIEL APRÈS SIGNATURE OU VOTRE SIGNATURE NE COMPTERA PAS

La réception du e-mail peut prendre jusqu'à quelques heures. Le système est actuellement surchargé.
https://petitions.noscommunes.ca/fPetition/Details?Petition=e-2574
https://petitions.noscommunes.ca/fPetition/Details?Petition=e-2576

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Étape 2:

**En cours**

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Étape 3:

**En cours**

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Étape 4: Pour ceux qui sont sur Facebook - Rejoignez le groupe d'action CCFR nouvellement créé et impliquez-vous !!
CCFR Action Facebook Group

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Étape 5:

Indépendamment de vos pensées / position concernant la BCWF (BC), ils ont fourni une plate-forme pour exprimer votre opposition aux mouvements draconiens de Trudeau. Profitez-en! BCWF - YOUR FIREARMS RIGHTS

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Étape 6:

Toute révocation d'enregistrement d'arme doit être accompagnée d'instructions sur comment faire apple à la court. Cela s'appelle un appel en vertu de l'article 74. Chaque dossier et procédure individuels devra être lu et cela les occuperas pendant des années. Classez individuellement chaque arme à feu affectée que vous possédez et rendez-la aussi douloureuse que possible pour eux.
Loi sur les armes à feu
NFA - CE QUE VOUS DEVEZ SAVOIR ET FAIRE!

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Étape 7:

Contactez tous les députés concernés à ce sujet. Exprimez votre désopinion, vos intentions de voter et vos promesses monétaires potentielles. Veuillez prendre le temps de personnaliser vos messages avec quelques mots. Cher député,
Aujourd'hui, je vous écris en tant que Canadien concerné.
Ce que le gouvernement libéral minoritaire a fait est inacceptable et antidémocratique.
Comme vous le savez sans doute bien, le 1er mai 2020, Justin Trudeau et le Parti libéral du Canada, constituant collectivement un gouvernement minoritaire au Canada, ont intentionnellement voulu renverser et contrecarrer la procédure parlementaire au Canada. Dans leur hâte de faire des remarques politiques sur la récente tragédie en Nouvelle-Écosse, ils ont décidé de renoncer au débat à la Chambre sur l'un des plus importants projets de loi (maintenant règlement) qu'ils ont présentés au cours de leur nouveau mandat. Cette action était et est une utilisation abusive évidente du processus de décret par un gouvernement qui ne savait pas si son projet de loi survivrait au débat parlementaire ouvert.
Je vous invite donc, en tant que député du Canada, à refuser le décret en conseil tel que prescrit par le paragraphe 117.15 (2) du Code criminel canadien. Je vous exhorte fortement à préserver l'intégrité et le caractère sacré de notre pays que l'adoption de ce décret salirait.
Je suis personnellement prêt à consacrer des ressources monétaires aux entités qui lutteront contre ce décret antidémocratique. Ce sujet sera un facteur décisif dans mes intentions de vote pour les prochaines élections fédérales.
J'apprécierais la courtoisie d'une réponse écrite à votre convenance.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Étape 8:

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Pour ceux d'entre nous qui peuvent se le permettre. Nous devons soutenir financièrement nos groupes de défense et nos partis politiques qui seront à l'avant-garde de toute ce fiasco.
Parti conservateur du Canada (Aucun autre parti n'a exprimé d'opposition. À l'heure actuelle, ils sont notre seule voix politique à ce sujet)
CCFR
NFA
CSAAA
CSSA-CILA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EDIT: Holy $%?#! Thank you so much for the awards. You guys are awesome. LETS BEAT THIS THING!
submitted by sempifi to canadaguns [link] [comments]

What's the point of Soft Staking?

Apologies in advance for the long post. Skip it all for the TL;DR.
Because CDC exchange still doesn't allow fiat withdrawls, and only displays prices in USD, I've only recently started considering using it over Binance.je or Coinbase Pro. That's when I learned that CDC Exchange offers soft staking; you can earn interest on idle crypto in your exchange wallet (as long as you have a certain CRO stake); something wich the other exchanges never offered me.
At first I went "wow, can you beat that?", but then it occured to me: CDC also offers the Crypto Earn product on their app; wich for the record, I love and is earning me a pretty generous interest. And upon noticing the abismal difference in interest rates between Earn and Soft Stake, it makes me wonder: why on Earth would you use the Soft Staking?
Crypto Earn interest rates are allways higher than Soft Staking. In the best scenario, if you stake 100'000 CRO on the Exchange, you can earn 4% on USDT. But if you deposit that same USDT on Crypto Earn, the lowest scenario offers you 6%; without any MCO/CRO stake. This gets even more ridiculous in the case of CRO; the Exchange best offer is 5%, the App Earn lowest offer is 12%; again with no stake required. The lowest rates on Earn are better than the highest on Soft Staking.
Having your idle crypto earning interest in the Exchange makes sense, since your coins are ready to actively trade them at anytime; it gives you advantage in mobility and liquidity. But isn't that what the Flexible Term on Crypto Earn already offers you? The Flexible Term can be withdrawn at anytime, and you receive your coins within seconds.
The Soft Staking is (I guess) compounded interest, since it adds up to the coins you have idle in your wallet. The interests in Crypto Earn are not compounded; but again, with the Flexible Term you can just withdraw all and deposit it all again, at anytime, along with the earned interest.
On top of that, CDC allows you to transfer funds between the App and the Exchange instantly and for free.
You could just leave your idle coins in a Flexible term in Earn, and when you see a good opportunity on the Exchange, withdraw them and transfer them to make your trade. It's a hassle, sure, but it can be done in less than 1 minute; and if you are actively watching the markets, you are able to pull this off, since you are alert and during your "active trading hours" anyway. So unless you make margin trades by the second, this isn't "too slow" to make you miss a oportunity.
And if you don't trade everyday, the Soft Staking makes even less sense, since you can just transfer your coins back and forth between the Exchange and Crypto Earn for free, according to your trading schedule.
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TL;DR - What is the big advantage of Soft Staking? The Soft Staking only seems to make sense if you have high 30 Day volumes of trading, or buy/sell with "by-the-second precision". I'm also assuming that when you place orders on the order book, said coins aren't elligible for earning interest, since they'r technically not idle on your wallet. Maybe that's the big advantage? Allowing you to earn interest even on placed orders? I feel like I'm missing something obvious.
submitted by BoilingGarbage to Crypto_com [link] [comments]

Today's Pre-Market Movers & News [Monday, February 10th, 2020]

Good morning traders and investors of the stocks sub! Welcome to the new trading week and a fresh start! Here are your pre-market movers and news this AM-

Today's Top Headlines for Monday, February 10th, 2020

STOCK FUTURES CURRENTLY:

(CLICK HERE FOR STOCK FUTURES CHARTS!)

LAST WEEK'S MARKET MAP:

(CLICK HERE FOR LAST WEEK'S MARKET MAP!)

TODAY'S MARKET MAP:

(CLICK HERE FOR TODAY'S MARKET MAP!)

LAST WEEK'S S&P SECTORS:

(CLICK HERE FOR LAST WEEK'S S&P SECTORS CHART!)

TODAY'S S&P SECTORS:

(CLICK HERE FOR TODAY'S S&P SECTORS CHART!)

TODAY'S ECONOMIC CALENDAR:

(CLICK HERE FOR TODAY'S ECONOMIC CALENDAR!)

THIS WEEK'S ECONOMIC CALENDAR:

(CLICK HERE FOR THIS WEEK'S ECONOMIC CALENDAR!)

THIS WEEK'S UPCOMING IPO'S:

(CLICK HERE FOR THIS WEEK'S UPCOMING IPO'S!)

THIS WEEK'S EARNINGS CALENDAR:

($BABA $ROKU $SHOP $NVDA $CVS $CGC $CSCO $UAA $QSR $L $AGN $HAS $LYFT $TEVA $AMAT $MCY $SAFE $GBDC $GOLD $PEP $DO $KHC $D $CYBR $MELI $CHGG $CNA $EXAS $GT $HLT $AYX $AN $APPS $WM $GPN $CRNT $BIP $YETI $MPAA $LSCC $RNG $NMM $JE)
(CLICK HERE FOR THIS WEEK'S EARNINGS CALENDAR!)

THIS MORNING'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS CALENDAR:

($QSR $L $MCY $GBDC $DO $CNA $BIP $CRNT $JE $IVC $EPC $GFN $NMM $MPAA $AVYA)
(CLICK HERE FOR THIS MORNING'S EARNINGS CALENDAR!)

THIS AFTERNOON'S POST-MARKET EARNINGS CALENDAR:

()
([CLICK HERE FOR THIS AFTERNOON'S EARNINGS CALENDAR!]())
T.B.A.

EARNINGS RELEASES BEFORE THE OPEN TODAY:

(CLICK HERE FOR THIS MORNING'S EARNINGS RELEASES!)

EARNINGS RELEASES AFTER THE CLOSE TODAY:

(CLICK HERE FOR THIS AFTERNOON'S EARNINGS RELEASES!)

FRIDAY'S ANALYST UPGRADES/DOWNGRADES:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S UPGRADES/DOWNGRADES LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S UPGRADES/DOWNGRADES LINK #2!)
(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S UPGRADES/DOWNGRADES LINK #3!)

FRIDAY'S INSIDER TRADING FILINGS:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S INSIDER TRADING FILINGS!)

TODAY'S DIVIDEND CALENDAR:

(CLICK HERE FOR TODAY'S DIVIDEND CALENDAR!)

THIS MORNING'S MOST ACTIVE TRENDING TICKERS:

  • BLK
  • AGN
  • QSR
  • AVYA
  • TCO
  • FDX
  • ADVM
  • BHVN
  • CMPR
  • COLL

THIS MORNING'S STOCK NEWS MOVERS:

(source: cnbc.com)
Taubman Centers (TCO) – Mall operator Simon Property Group (SPG) will buy rival Taubman for $52.50 per share in cash, or about $3.6 billion. Taubman’s properties will continue to be managed by its existing executive team.

STOCK SYMBOL: TCO

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Allergan (AGN) – The drugmaker reported quarterly earnings of $5.22 per share, compared to estimates of $4.57 a share. Revenue also beat Wall Street forecasts, helped by better-than-expected specialized therapeutics and general medicine sales.

STOCK SYMBOL: AGN

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Edgewell Personal Care (EPC) – The maker of Schick razors reported quarterly profit of 55 cents per share, well above the consensus estimate of 29 cents a share. Revenue exceeded estimates as well, and its full-year outlook is also mostly above Street forecasts. Separately, Edgewell ended its agreement to buy razor maker Harry’s, after the Federal Trade Commission moved to block the deal.

STOCK SYMBOL: EPC

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Restaurant Brands (QSR) – The restaurant operator reported quarterly profit of 75 cents per share, 2 cents a share above estimates. Revenue also came in above forecasts. Comparable sales were shy of expectations at Tim Hortons and Burger King, but well above forecasts at Popeyes. The company said systemwide sales at the Popeyes chain jumped 42%, thanks in large part to its popular spicy chicken sandwich.

STOCK SYMBOL: QSR

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Eli Lilly (LLY) – Lilly and partner Genentech said their experimental therapy for a rare form of Alzheimer’s disease missed its primary goal in a study.

STOCK SYMBOL: LLY

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
L Brands (LB) – L Brands is near a deal to sell its Victoria’s Secret division to private-equity firm Sycamore Partners, according to sources who spoke to CNBC. The price could not be learned, but a deal could be announced as soon as this week.

STOCK SYMBOL: LB

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Mattel (MAT) – Mattel is shutting two factories in Asia and will close another in Canada, as it seeks to cut costs. The toy maker has been seeking to streamline its manufacturing and supply chain.

STOCK SYMBOL: MAT

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Tesla (TSLA) – Tesla remains on watch after a tumultuous week which saw in move more than $100 per share in either direction in three of five sessions. Tesla shares have posted 10 consecutive weekly gains and have risen 127% over that span.

STOCK SYMBOL: TSLA

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Apple (AAPL) – Apple may postpone the launch of a cheaper iPhone due to the coronavirus, according to published reports in China.

STOCK SYMBOL: AAPL

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Yum China (YUMC) – A Yum China employee in Northwest China responsible for food preparation was confirmed to have the coronavirus, according to the Global Times.

STOCK SYMBOL: YUMC

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Willis Towers Watson (WLTW) – The stock was downgraded to “neutral” from “outperform” at Credit Suisse in a valuation call. The consulting firm had reported better than expected quarterly earnings last week, but the stock tumbled amid a 2020 earnings forecast that fell partially below consensus.

STOCK SYMBOL: WLTW

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
FedEx (FDX) – FedEx was upgraded to “buy” from “neutral” at UBS, which thinks consensus expectations are low for the company and that profit margins at FedEx’s Express service will expand.

STOCK SYMBOL: FDX

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
World Wrestling (WWE) – World Wrestling was downgraded to “underweight” from “overweight” at Wells Fargo Securities, with the price target slashed to $36 per share from $80 a share. Wells Fargo said there have been “too many misfires,” and that the company needs a new CFO and to issue long-term guidance.

STOCK SYMBOL: WWE

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)
Nvidia (NVDA) – RBC Capital increased its price target for the graphics chip maker’s stock to $301 per share from $251, saying the quarter ending January 31 is likely to come in above the high end of the company’s guidance due to strong gaming and data center markets.

STOCK SYMBOL: NVDA

(CLICK HERE FOR LIVE STOCK QUOTE!)

DISCUSS!

What is on everyone's radar for today's trading day ahead here at stocks?

I hope you all have an excellent trading day ahead today on this Monday, February 10th, 2020! :)

submitted by bigbear0083 to stocks [link] [comments]

Hitting a wall coming up with interesting nations for the Continent of Ardos: here's what I have so far, and can anyone give me further pointers?

My campaign, my first not from a module, is taking place on the continent of Ardos: image provided to give you an idea of the geography, mostly forests in the south and west, mountains in the middle, and grassland with some rainforest in the west and north. Also, to give an idea as to the sort of setting, all land is claimed by governments of one sort or another, with ruins / monsters / evil lairs on the periphery far from settlements, and race relations are pretty egalitarian, especially because my Orcs are INT 10 and not tied to any evil, Grummush or otherwise. No races other than most goblinoids and yuan-ti are evil by nature, and the game's audience are mainly queer, mostly marginalized people, and all left-wing, so I'm making it comfortable for them and a little upbeat-fantasy, because with these dark days, no need for our D&D to be all half-orc products of rape and starving villages bereft of any hope. Not SUPER high magic, but more magical than RAW: for an example, for 2,000 GP you can get a totally-not-a-pistol that fires caster-level-1 combat cantrips, with noncombat cantrips more accessible to, say, craftsmen, many learn magic and essentially anyone who wants to has the ability to learn a cantrip or two.
I have ideas for some of my nations, first of which will be the Dulands, which is a relatively safe and urbanized place for early levels:
The Dulands are a confederacy of allied towns, with no centralized authority, limited legal force, little military power and governed by city councils of traders, mages, religious figures and representatives of the common people, elected by acclaim. The Dulands’ terrain is dominated by evergreen forests and fertile farmland, although as far south as they are, their winters are harsh. The cities of the Dulands, primarily Finster but also including Thetford, another major trade entrepot, are prosperous and have magic weaved throughout their planning, guaranteeing thick stone walls and fresh water for everyone. Their ability to continue existing, free of noble power, monstrous incursion or foreign invasion comes from their island’s blessing; six hundred years ago, after a major war, a saint-cleric of La used her life-force and magnificent magical powers to create a barrier along the island, which, when crossed by those with hostile intent, invokes a storm that sinks or repels their ship or blasts fliers out of the sky with lightning. Dulanders are involved in trade throughout Ardos, and their primary exports are magical goods, luxuries, and verdigreen, a nearly-indispensible alchemical component. The Dulands are majority human, though a large portion of their residents are of other races, primarily high elves and shield dwarves.
The Fassan Empire, or Fassana, is a military autocracy, headed by the chief general of the realm, currently Viktor IV Fassan, although House Fassan only occasionally holds the imperial title in the nation named for them. The Empire, whose vassal states include the city-state of Boisses and their recently-conquered Fassan-Nefrou, rules with an iron fist, though their rule is legitimized by the grain ration guaranteed to every resident, citizen or not, and the extensive system of trade routes, highways, and passes guarded by military forces, making the Fassan Empire among the safest places to travel, as long as you follow the extensive laws. Citizenship is earned among the Fassanas through six years of military service, involvement in three successful militia or guardsmans’ sorties with confirmable combat victories, or the ability to cast third-level spells, although citizenship is less a necessity than a way of granting privileges akin to a very minor noble, including the right to claim land of your own to settle after successful expansionist military campaigns. The population of the Empire is nearly exclusively human, though successful dwarven and orcish settlements dot the Empire and all races, with the exception of tieflings who are expelled at birth, are at least legally tolerated. The countryside primarily consists of yew forests in the south, temperate rainforests in the north, and wetlands between, and the primary exports are metalwork, weaponry, magical goods and naval supplies, given the preponderance of high-quality wood. The Empire is currently at war with the Patian Republic, the Queendom of Galkia, and the Grand Duchy of Aria, the last two of whom having set aside their ancient rivalry to curb Fassan expansion.
The Patian Republic, shortened to Patia, is a relatively new state, having formed from the ashes of the dead Kingdom of Patia, whose royal line was cursed for their evil deeds. Decisions are made as communally as possible; direct democracy rules the villages and towns, while decisions on a national scale are made through a process in which assemblies, held every twenty miles or so apart, each send a representative for every five hundred assembled to the capital at the city of Merin, which then decides amongst themselves, unless a deadlock occurs and the amended issue returns to the local assemblies. This creates a realm unified in their common differences, happy to be citizens of such an enlightened state, and privy to the generous benefits the people’s government distributes; that being said, decisions are made either slowly or even slower under the system, and in times of crisis, the ability for the Patians to resolve their differences, choose a path forward, and protect themselves can be undermined by internal resentments, factionalism or simply the pace of a system involving delegates taking monthlong journeys to the capital and back. Among the concessions extracted by the common people are Ardos’ strictest magical laws; practicioners of magic beyond cantrips are bound to magic-guilds which regulate every spell cast outside active combat, and the penalties for unlawful magic use are severe indeed. The Patians were the recipients of a declaration of war by the Fassan Empire, but their extensive diplomatic ties and positive relations with most Ardon nations led to the formation of a coalition with the Queendom and the Grand Duchy. The terrain is dominated by lush forests, including the pichin-trees, rare outside the Republic and producing bountiful fruits with texture, flavor and nutrition similar to loaves of fine white bread and immune to spoilage if kept dry, meaning that the Republic has much less reliance on agriculture than other realms, accordingly creating a society with much leisure and creative time. The primary exports of the Republic are pichin, artwork, luxuries, cocoa and alchemical components found in the forests.
The Kingdom of Zier is an elven kingdom among the forests of northwestern Ardos, with its population mostly wood elves and gnomes living in nature, though the urban population is a mix of all races. Though nominally a kingdom, the ruling monarch, currently Elai II Virnoula, holds most of his power through ceremony and his powerful magic, because the royal family traditionally has dozens of children, coronating the most powerful mage of the lot, as long as they’re of moral decency. The kings hold some authority, but have little influence over local rule, such as it is; Zier has few rules other than “be decent”, and decisions are made among the elders and mages of the community. This creates an egalitarian society, though one in which a meaningful class divide between magic and mundane persists. Zier also treats music as sacred, and thus bards or simply those talented with instrument or voice are treated as, unofficially, elders in their own right, having the gift treated as a blessing from all the best gods and wise in the lore and stories passed down through music. The culture of Zier is peaceful and anti-aggressive, and thus the nation isn’t participating in the Fassan coalitionary war, although at least part of that can be ascribed to the longstanding tensions between the magical society of Zier and the Patian society of heavy magic restrictions. The trade economy of Zier is based on the creation of art objects, jewelry and magic, given that the forest essentially provides for the day-to-day needs of the people, and it’s against the spirit of Zieran culture to admit the kingdom is wealthy, prosperous and, if turned toward warfare, powerful.
The Grand Duchy of Aria is the most thoroughly feudalized state in Ardos. Ruled by an aristocracy obsessed with breeding and lineage, the Arian (pronounced are-y-ahn) nobility trace their proud history back to the war of conquest in which a band of “noble” human warriors obliterated a fledgling orcish civilization. Within the Duchy, anyone but humans are considered near-untouchables, although the existence of illusionists and disguise-masters means that those with human-like physiques can live in secret there, if they have the pre-existing assets to afford concealment of their identities. At least partially because of their institutionalized discrimination, which inhibits their abilities to conduct trade and diplomacy, the Grand Duchy is among the least developed lands of Ardos, with most of its citizens conducting subsistence agriculture, and the relative inability to fend off threats that don’t directly affect the aristocracy means that the lands are, by and large, more dangerous than the surrounding nations and more likely to allow evil beings to establish lairs and project power against the locals. That said, given the extensive use of alchemical weaponry-- fireglass, coldsnap, deathdust and others-- in the Arian conquest, the Duchy’s nobility have long supported alchemical and thaumaturgopharmaceutical advances, meaning that what little trade the Grand Duchy conducts is usually in those interests, providing cures, tonic draughts, recreational substances and deadly poisons alike to the rest of Ardos.
During the last war between the Patian Republic and the Kingdom of Zier, most of the fighting occurred in the Bonnemarch, the area of flat, mostly-deforested countryside around the grand city of Bonne, an inland hub of education and high culture. The war ended when an army, headed by the Regent of Bonne, expelled both the Patians and the Zieris from the Bonnemarch, which established itself as an independent city-state. Its nature as a buffer zone between the two nations, along with the prosperity of the land, Bonnemarch has established itself as a neutral meeting ground for different parties, whether warring states, rival trade companies, religious disputants or simply duelists for honor, heading off potential feuds with single combat. Part of the reason for the prosperity of the Bonnemarch comes from the Bonnemarch Gate, to which all nations’ capitals have keystones, allowing teleportation between the Gate and the capitals dependent upon conditional permission from the Regent’s mages; through it flow every sort of goods, making the Bonne market the grandest trading stage in all Ardos and lending further wealth and glory to the city’s many universities, palaces and manors.
The island of Nefrou has long been wracked by religious conflicts between the Rasanists of the Duchy of Corrop and the Daranis of the Diarchy of Erieria, conflicts that prevent the two from coordinating even in cases of foreign incursion. Because of that, the southern coast of the island was taken fifteen years ago by the Fassan Empire, who, realizing the fractious culture of the island, decided to construct the puppet state of Fassan-Nefrou instead of directly integrating the territory. Corrop is held by an ancient lineage of sorcerers that traces itself back to the white dragon Rasan, which ascended to godhood through their worship, whereas the nature-worshippers of Erieria are ruled by their two kings, elected among the elders of the realm-- their state is more-or-less undermined by that, as by the time a Erierian is ready to take the kingship, they’re within several years of a natural death, the sort even resurrections can’t cure. Nefrou, despite its cultural dysfunction, is rich and pleasant land, easy to farm and with fish teeming off the shore; these fish, preserved with the salt so accessible here, provide key food sources to half of Ardos, and the magical components ranging from sahuagin bile to pearls to sea-serpent slime earn Nefrouni traders great wealth. In addition to that, Mount Nefrou, the volcano that formed the island, is rich in magical crystals of many sorts; enterprising mages visit the caldera to harvest crystal for spell components, crystal balls, canter-stabilizers and more.
The Queendom of Galkia, as one might gather from its title, flips the typical patriarchy on its head. Though most realms recognize the equality of women and men, some enforce tight gender roles, such as the Grand Duchy, where women have essentially only those rights the men in their life grant them, women are politically aand socially the superiors of men in the Queendom, establishing such situations as armies of male infantry commanded and led by women cavalry. This political situation often makes diplomacy with other realms difficult; for obvious reasons this makes for a longstanding rivalry with Aria, but most foreigners to the Queendom are slightly uncomfortable at the least with the abjection of the Queen’s male subjects. That being said, the Queendom of Galkia is blessed with fertile soil, green forests, and the majority of Ardos’ supply of greenwood, nearly-sacred trees that make the finest bows, the steadiest ships, and the strongest homes. That timber, along with the spices gathered in the city, which tend to shoot up around greenwood stands, make up the basis of the trade economy of the Queendom. Currently, the Queendom is at odds with the Fassan Empire, as they’ve been embargoed from trading in the Boissan entrepot; a real problem for the Queendom, as they have a quality port at Fiuglia, their capitol, on the northern shore, but lack sea access on their south shore, which they’ve long used Bouis for, until the imposition of the embargo on Galkian goods since Viktor II Fassan’s ascension, as his personal politics hold a special loathing for the Queendom’s matriarchy.
Great Knosia, which styles itself the descendant of the Knosian Empire which once spanned all Western Ardos, is now a remnant of its original self. The Knosian Order of paladins, which effectively governed the Empire and kept it in line with the interests of justice, peace and the common good, has devolved into a social club for the nobility, with a few still enabled to use their holy powers but most of whom are simply rich cavalry warriors without magical abilities or the moral authority invested in them. Still, to this day, the Order rules the land, and for reasons of perception and moral authority is obliged to rule in the interests of their people, though the more cynical among them jockey for every opportunity to enrich and empower themselves at the expense of the people. The collapse of Knosian spiritual authority, of course, came not with the collapse of the Empire but with the Rhysian Revolution, in which Rhys IV Andrikos, the High Chaplain of the order and one of the continent’s greatest clerics, fell to corruption and revolted against the Order, falling into twenty years of brutal civil war concluded by the cession of the new Kingdom of Rhysia to its new king a hundred-and-twenty years ago. Though most of the brigand, blackguard and bloodthirsty members of the Order went with Rhys in his new kingdom, the idea that the order was incorruptible, though upon shaky foundations already, was permanently stained by the war, and even a century later, Great Knosia has become a hub of crime and immorality outside the cities, where bandit lords, mage-tyrants and monsters more-or-less rule with impunity.
The Kingdom of Rhysia, itself a young offshoot of Great Knosia and founded by a malign priest who named the lands for himself, are a fairly straightforward illustration of aristocratic tyranny. Serfs suffer, as the lords rule and revel, and the royal court is a hotbed of intrigue, where most of the backstabbing is literal. That being said, for a state as principally evil as Rhysia, it has the unusual characteristic of being a fair arbiter and a recognized diplomatic power in Ardos, for the fact that the Rhysian kings have decided that it is better to consolidate and make unanswerable the power they have over their own lands than attempt to expand into others, where the people are unused to the Rhysian yoke and would soon rebel. Within the borders, the constant maintenance of military forces, aimed inward, make the roads fairly free of monsters and magical dangers, but the soldiers pose the same threat as monsters to travelers, merchants, and peasants alike. The land of Rhysia, forested in the south and the greenest of the Great Expanse to the north, its grassland fertilized and watered by meltwater off the Nuraks, is fertile and rich, which has prevented the sort of population contraction that the unsuited rule of the Rhysian nobility might otherwise create. Exports revolve around agricultural products, which they ship in magically-enhanced cogs hundreds of feet long and containing veritable seas of grain and crates upon crates of preserved vegetables, along with the mines at Kalos, the greatest mines outside the mountainous regions of Ardos and the source for nearly all the continent’s wolfram, useful for manipulating magic, whether attracting or repelling it, along with incorporation into the finest steel.
The land of Nurak, as it fails a simple categorization like “kingdom”, is a sparse, slightly-populated realm in the center of Ardos, occupying nearly all the Nurak Mountains. The harsh mountains and freezing winters preclude a large civilization from springing up there, but the dwellers of the land, primarily orcs aboveground and dwarves below, worship the mountains as their guardian spirits. It’s for this reason that every clan, and almost every adult member of those clans, is trained for war and drill for a month a year in the sort of irregular tactics, ambushes, and mountain warfare needed to defend their homes, and as the denizens have no ambition to expand beyond the mountains they call their home, Nurak is both staunchly defended and free of warfare for hundreds of years. Most of the economy of the land is based on what the mountains provide; magical remains from the monsters and beasts living in each cave, cranny and clearing, ore and gems from the rich veins of the Nurakksul, and given the glut of trained and talented warriors the land’s known for, loot and treasure brought home from the thousands of Nurakians who take up the adventurer’s life, though rarely do they stray from their beloved mountains for long. What government exists is an assembly, held every two years, between clans, the few city councils, and those who earned enough fame and prestige to stop their seating at the assembly being objected to; the assembly mostly sets priorities for production, determines trading contracts and what little diplomacy is needed, and commissions heroes for what villains and beasts the locals cannot overcome. Mutual aid, clan ties and the ancient friendship of orcs and dwarves fills in much of the power gap that exists.
The remaining states are: the Domain of Bhurk, which I expect to be a LN-slightly LE expansionist oligarchy with a military with many low-to-mid-level casters (well, and some high-level generals),
Datgerdia, a CG republic of refugees from an ancient war, mostly the small races, with an economy based off luxury goods and trained monsters like griffons and ridable bullettes,
Kuhkia, which I think will be a monastic state, where the rich land lets monastaries act as feudal centers of power and trade entrepots,
the twin island nations of Il'har and Copjez, two warring states of yuan-ti that other major political players secretly sabotage and support to prevent them from unifying and invading Ardos proper,
Je'Het, which I haven't fully thought through but feel like should be a theocracy of some sort,
Brur Khar, which is an agricultural state with a massive rural population ruled by mostly-benevolent elven horse lords (think an idealized Mongolia, with steeds ranging from horses to magic mounts),
Pholis, which I expect to be Venice-Sicily with something like an arcane Theodosian Walls to keep independent from Brur Khar,
the Fylkirate of Skland, a maritime empire with a population heavy on dwarves, an integrated and prestigious if small population of giants, a religion encouraging raiding its enemies, with its vassals Holm (a trade city) and Ubzhall (the ancestral hall of the giants and the surrounding country) more-or-less constantly agitating for independence while still coveting the trade wealth the Fylkirate brings them,
and the triplet kingdoms of Shem, Krystur and Thiluna, which disintegrated from the Black Skull Empire when the lich who ruled was slain a hundred-forty years ago, and haven't reunified because of religious and cultural differences.
Anyone have any ideas, or want to flesh out any of the incomplete realms? I'm supremely interested in your input, and if you want to cannibalize some or all this for your settings, be my guest! One note: not to be too politically correct, but just because it lines up with my interests, no "evil race state" and, ideally, not too much Fantasy Foreign Culture Equivalent.
submitted by irritated_socialist to worldbuilding [link] [comments]

Today's Pre-Market Movers & News [Monday, February 10th, 2020]

Good morning traders and investors of the StockMarket sub! Welcome to the new trading week and a fresh start! Here are your pre-market movers and news this AM-

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Today's Top Headlines for Monday, February 10th, 2020

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($BABA $ROKU $SHOP $NVDA $CVS $CGC $CSCO $UAA $QSR $L $AGN $HAS $LYFT $TEVA $AMAT $MCY $SAFE $GBDC $GOLD $PEP $DO $KHC $D $CYBR $MELI $CHGG $CNA $EXAS $GT $HLT $AYX $AN $APPS $WM $GPN $CRNT $BIP $YETI $MPAA $LSCC $RNG $NMM $JE)
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THIS MORNING'S MOST ACTIVE TRENDING TICKERS:

  • BLK
  • AGN
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  • TCO
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THIS MORNING'S STOCK NEWS MOVERS:

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Taubman Centers (TCO) – Mall operator Simon Property Group (SPG) will buy rival Taubman for $52.50 per share in cash, or about $3.6 billion. Taubman’s properties will continue to be managed by its existing executive team.

STOCK SYMBOL: TCO

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Allergan (AGN) – The drugmaker reported quarterly earnings of $5.22 per share, compared to estimates of $4.57 a share. Revenue also beat Wall Street forecasts, helped by better-than-expected specialized therapeutics and general medicine sales.

STOCK SYMBOL: AGN

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Edgewell Personal Care (EPC) – The maker of Schick razors reported quarterly profit of 55 cents per share, well above the consensus estimate of 29 cents a share. Revenue exceeded estimates as well, and its full-year outlook is also mostly above Street forecasts. Separately, Edgewell ended its agreement to buy razor maker Harry’s, after the Federal Trade Commission moved to block the deal.

STOCK SYMBOL: EPC

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Restaurant Brands (QSR) – The restaurant operator reported quarterly profit of 75 cents per share, 2 cents a share above estimates. Revenue also came in above forecasts. Comparable sales were shy of expectations at Tim Hortons and Burger King, but well above forecasts at Popeyes. The company said systemwide sales at the Popeyes chain jumped 42%, thanks in large part to its popular spicy chicken sandwich.

STOCK SYMBOL: QSR

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Eli Lilly (LLY) – Lilly and partner Genentech said their experimental therapy for a rare form of Alzheimer’s disease missed its primary goal in a study.

STOCK SYMBOL: LLY

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L Brands (LB) – L Brands is near a deal to sell its Victoria’s Secret division to private-equity firm Sycamore Partners, according to sources who spoke to CNBC. The price could not be learned, but a deal could be announced as soon as this week.

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Mattel (MAT) – Mattel is shutting two factories in Asia and will close another in Canada, as it seeks to cut costs. The toy maker has been seeking to streamline its manufacturing and supply chain.

STOCK SYMBOL: MAT

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Tesla (TSLA) – Tesla remains on watch after a tumultuous week which saw in move more than $100 per share in either direction in three of five sessions. Tesla shares have posted 10 consecutive weekly gains and have risen 127% over that span.

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Apple (AAPL) – Apple may postpone the launch of a cheaper iPhone due to the coronavirus, according to published reports in China.

STOCK SYMBOL: AAPL

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Yum China (YUMC) – A Yum China employee in Northwest China responsible for food preparation was confirmed to have the coronavirus, according to the Global Times.

STOCK SYMBOL: YUMC

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Willis Towers Watson (WLTW) – The stock was downgraded to “neutral” from “outperform” at Credit Suisse in a valuation call. The consulting firm had reported better than expected quarterly earnings last week, but the stock tumbled amid a 2020 earnings forecast that fell partially below consensus.

STOCK SYMBOL: WLTW

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FedEx (FDX) – FedEx was upgraded to “buy” from “neutral” at UBS, which thinks consensus expectations are low for the company and that profit margins at FedEx’s Express service will expand.

STOCK SYMBOL: FDX

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World Wrestling (WWE) – World Wrestling was downgraded to “underweight” from “overweight” at Wells Fargo Securities, with the price target slashed to $36 per share from $80 a share. Wells Fargo said there have been “too many misfires,” and that the company needs a new CFO and to issue long-term guidance.

STOCK SYMBOL: WWE

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Nvidia (NVDA) – RBC Capital increased its price target for the graphics chip maker’s stock to $301 per share from $251, saying the quarter ending January 31 is likely to come in above the high end of the company’s guidance due to strong gaming and data center markets.

STOCK SYMBOL: NVDA

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DISCUSS!

What is on everyone's radar for today's trading day ahead here at StockMarket?

I hope you all have an excellent trading day ahead today on this Monday, February 10th, 2020! :)

submitted by bigbear0083 to StockMarket [link] [comments]

Collected all 10 Four Roses Single Barrel recipes and decided to run a blind tasting with some buddies.

Hello All,
First real post here to bourbon. Over the last couple years I decided to try to collect all 10 of the different 4 Roses Single Barrel Recipes. With Michigan being an island for 4 Roses picks (only one store 2 hours away ever gets them), finding some picks traveling, and tons of trading I was able to finally grab all ten. After doing so, decided to host a get together with some local bourbon buddies to taste them all. Note for tasting, all bottles were opened at the same time and allowed air for around a month and a half, mashbill and yeast strain were hidden from us at time of tasting, but we had info on the age and proof.
List of Bottles:
OBSV Tippins Rainy Day (Ann Arbor) 10 years 10 months EN 36-1D 51.5%
OBSO Wine and Spirits In the Quarter (Jackson, MS) 9 years 6 months QN 73-1N 51.1%
OBSQ Nashville Whiskey Festival (Nashville TN) 9 years, 7 months KW 41-2H 57.5%
OBSF Supermarket Liqours (Niagara Falls, NY) 9 years, 5 months JE 65-3J 59.1%
OBSK Tippins Strange and Unusual Places (Ann Arbor) 10 years 8 months QN 77-2L 54.7%
OESV B and B Package (Kingsport TN) 9 years, 11 months PS 26-5N 61%
OESO Plumpjack Wine and Spirits (San Francisco, CA) 10 years, 11 months QS 57-1O 52.5%
OESQ Providence Wine and Spirits (Mt Juliet, TN) 9 years 2 months NS 4-3M (forgot to grab the proof but I think 60+)
OESF Liquor Barn (Lexington KY) 9 years 5 months KE 56-2P 56.4%
OESK Cork Dorks (Nashville TN) 9 years 10 months AN 67-4S 58.8%
My personal top 3 1. OESK 2. OBSK 3. OESV
Group average rating of 9 people 1. OESV 2. OESF 3. OESK
Worst Rated by both myself and group by a large margin 1. OESQ
Some notes: Not going to bore everyone with my nosing and tasting notes on all 10 (I dont pretend to know 100% of what Im doing), but there were some definite surprises. Of course this applies to my palate and my palate only, so your mileage may vary
F Yeast Strains- Going in I figured the F yeast strains would be the worst 2 bottles. Herbal notes in bourbon are not my jam at all and I've had plenty of bottles that are ruined for my tastes by funky earthy notes. These 2 picks at least had none of the classic earthy tones I equate as bad tasting bourbon. In fact both had a pleasant mint note to them that I enjoyed, but the flavors felt a little clashing at times. Will be interested in revisiting down the line
OBSK-Speaking of mint, the bottle of OBSK I have is a mint bomb to the extreme. Not sure where it comes from as its not something I would expect from the yeast strain (outside of the higher rye mashbill) but I really enjoyed this pour. Others in the group, not so much. One of the 9 people reviewing gave it a 3 out of 10, saying he can see how people would like it if that was their flavor profile, but its not a flavor he cares for in the slightest.
OESV-By far had the highest consensus ratings. Also the highest proof which I know our group enjoys. Personally, I like to live in the 107-115 proof range so this was a tad hot for me both on the nose and palate, but getting past the heat the flavors were top notch. All the classic bourbon flavors (caramel, vanilla, oak) dialed up to 11 with a creamy mouthfeel. Also interesting to note, this specific rickhouse/location and aged OESV run produced quite a few other barrels that were sought after on secondary market. Seems that Four Roses hit a homerun with that production run.
OESK- My new love in bourbon, I will seek these out if I can find them from now on. Nose on this bad boy smells like a buttery bourbon syrup that would make the best pancakes. Mouth feel is rich, creamy and all the smells from the nose carry over to the palate.
OESQ- Oh boy. Maybe it needs time to open up. Maybe this is just a subpar pick. Maybe floral bourbon isnt my thing. But if I wasnt trying to collect all 10, Id be mad I spent money on this bottle. Hot mess.
Whats your favorite recipe that you have tried?
Side note-If anyone wants a little more info on the tasting from outside of myself, a couple of the gentlemen who attended have youtube channels and documented the tasting! Don't want to post a link to the video per sub rules, but should be easy to find the videos as they have been uploaded recently!
submitted by Bcspragu to bourbon [link] [comments]

Hitting a wall coming up with interesting nations for the Continent of Ardos: here's what I have so far, and can anyone give me further pointers?

My campaign, my first not from a module, is taking place on the continent of Ardos: image provided to give you an idea of the geography, mostly forests in the south and west, mountains in the middle, and grassland with some rainforest in the west and north. Also, to give an idea as to the sort of setting, all land is claimed by governments of one sort or another, with ruins / monsters / evil lairs on the periphery far from settlements, and race relations are pretty egalitarian, especially because my Orcs are INT 10 and not tied to any evil, Grummush or otherwise. No races other than most goblinoids and yuan-ti are evil by nature, and the game's audience are mainly queer, mostly marginalized people, and all left-wing, so I'm making it comfortable for them and a little upbeat-fantasy, because with these dark days, no need for our D&D to be all half-orc products of rape and starving villages bereft of any hope. Not SUPER high magic, but more magical than RAW: for an example, for 2,000 GP you can get a totally-not-a-pistol that fires caster-level-1 combat cantrips, with noncombat cantrips more accessible to, say, craftsmen, many learn magic and essentially anyone who wants to has the ability to learn a cantrip or two.
I have ideas for some of my nations, first of which will be the Dulands, which is a relatively safe and urbanized place for early levels:
The Dulands are a confederacy of allied towns, with no centralized authority, limited legal force, little military power and governed by city councils of traders, mages, religious figures and representatives of the common people, elected by acclaim. The Dulands’ terrain is dominated by evergreen forests and fertile farmland, although as far south as they are, their winters are harsh. The cities of the Dulands, primarily Finster but also including Thetford, another major trade entrepot, are prosperous and have magic weaved throughout their planning, guaranteeing thick stone walls and fresh water for everyone. Their ability to continue existing, free of noble power, monstrous incursion or foreign invasion comes from their island’s blessing; six hundred years ago, after a major war, a saint-cleric of La used her life-force and magnificent magical powers to create a barrier along the island, which, when crossed by those with hostile intent, invokes a storm that sinks or repels their ship or blasts fliers out of the sky with lightning. Dulanders are involved in trade throughout Ardos, and their primary exports are magical goods, luxuries, and verdigreen, a nearly-indispensible alchemical component. The Dulands are majority human, though a large portion of their residents are of other races, primarily high elves and shield dwarves.
The Fassan Empire, or Fassana, is a military autocracy, headed by the chief general of the realm, currently Viktor IV Fassan, although House Fassan only occasionally holds the imperial title in the nation named for them. The Empire, whose vassal states include the city-state of Boisses and their recently-conquered Fassan-Nefrou, rules with an iron fist, though their rule is legitimized by the grain ration guaranteed to every resident, citizen or not, and the extensive system of trade routes, highways, and passes guarded by military forces, making the Fassan Empire among the safest places to travel, as long as you follow the extensive laws. Citizenship is earned among the Fassanas through six years of military service, involvement in three successful militia or guardsmans’ sorties with confirmable combat victories, or the ability to cast third-level spells, although citizenship is less a necessity than a way of granting privileges akin to a very minor noble, including the right to claim land of your own to settle after successful expansionist military campaigns. The population of the Empire is nearly exclusively human, though successful dwarven and orcish settlements dot the Empire and all races, with the exception of tieflings who are expelled at birth, are at least legally tolerated. The countryside primarily consists of yew forests in the south, temperate rainforests in the north, and wetlands between, and the primary exports are metalwork, weaponry, magical goods and naval supplies, given the preponderance of high-quality wood. The Empire is currently at war with the Patian Republic, the Queendom of Galkia, and the Grand Duchy of Aria, the last two of whom having set aside their ancient rivalry to curb Fassan expansion.
The Patian Republic, shortened to Patia, is a relatively new state, having formed from the ashes of the dead Kingdom of Patia, whose royal line was cursed for their evil deeds. Decisions are made as communally as possible; direct democracy rules the villages and towns, while decisions on a national scale are made through a process in which assemblies, held every twenty miles or so apart, each send a representative for every five hundred assembled to the capital at the city of Merin, which then decides amongst themselves, unless a deadlock occurs and the amended issue returns to the local assemblies. This creates a realm unified in their common differences, happy to be citizens of such an enlightened state, and privy to the generous benefits the people’s government distributes; that being said, decisions are made either slowly or even slower under the system, and in times of crisis, the ability for the Patians to resolve their differences, choose a path forward, and protect themselves can be undermined by internal resentments, factionalism or simply the pace of a system involving delegates taking monthlong journeys to the capital and back. Among the concessions extracted by the common people are Ardos’ strictest magical laws; practicioners of magic beyond cantrips are bound to magic-guilds which regulate every spell cast outside active combat, and the penalties for unlawful magic use are severe indeed. The Patians were the recipients of a declaration of war by the Fassan Empire, but their extensive diplomatic ties and positive relations with most Ardon nations led to the formation of a coalition with the Queendom and the Grand Duchy. The terrain is dominated by lush forests, including the pichin-trees, rare outside the Republic and producing bountiful fruits with texture, flavor and nutrition similar to loaves of fine white bread and immune to spoilage if kept dry, meaning that the Republic has much less reliance on agriculture than other realms, accordingly creating a society with much leisure and creative time. The primary exports of the Republic are pichin, artwork, luxuries, cocoa and alchemical components found in the forests.
The Kingdom of Zier is an elven kingdom among the forests of northwestern Ardos, with its population mostly wood elves and gnomes living in nature, though the urban population is a mix of all races. Though nominally a kingdom, the ruling monarch, currently Elai II Virnoula, holds most of his power through ceremony and his powerful magic, because the royal family traditionally has dozens of children, coronating the most powerful mage of the lot, as long as they’re of moral decency. The kings hold some authority, but have little influence over local rule, such as it is; Zier has few rules other than “be decent”, and decisions are made among the elders and mages of the community. This creates an egalitarian society, though one in which a meaningful class divide between magic and mundane persists. Zier also treats music as sacred, and thus bards or simply those talented with instrument or voice are treated as, unofficially, elders in their own right, having the gift treated as a blessing from all the best gods and wise in the lore and stories passed down through music. The culture of Zier is peaceful and anti-aggressive, and thus the nation isn’t participating in the Fassan coalitionary war, although at least part of that can be ascribed to the longstanding tensions between the magical society of Zier and the Patian society of heavy magic restrictions. The trade economy of Zier is based on the creation of art objects, jewelry and magic, given that the forest essentially provides for the day-to-day needs of the people, and it’s against the spirit of Zieran culture to admit the kingdom is wealthy, prosperous and, if turned toward warfare, powerful.
The Grand Duchy of Aria is the most thoroughly feudalized state in Ardos. Ruled by an aristocracy obsessed with breeding and lineage, the Arian (pronounced are-y-ahn) nobility trace their proud history back to the war of conquest in which a band of “noble” human warriors obliterated a fledgling orcish civilization. Within the Duchy, anyone but humans are considered near-untouchables, although the existence of illusionists and disguise-masters means that those with human-like physiques can live in secret there, if they have the pre-existing assets to afford concealment of their identities. At least partially because of their institutionalized discrimination, which inhibits their abilities to conduct trade and diplomacy, the Grand Duchy is among the least developed lands of Ardos, with most of its citizens conducting subsistence agriculture, and the relative inability to fend off threats that don’t directly affect the aristocracy means that the lands are, by and large, more dangerous than the surrounding nations and more likely to allow evil beings to establish lairs and project power against the locals. That said, given the extensive use of alchemical weaponry-- fireglass, coldsnap, deathdust and others-- in the Arian conquest, the Duchy’s nobility have long supported alchemical and thaumaturgopharmaceutical advances, meaning that what little trade the Grand Duchy conducts is usually in those interests, providing cures, tonic draughts, recreational substances and deadly poisons alike to the rest of Ardos.
During the last war between the Patian Republic and the Kingdom of Zier, most of the fighting occurred in the Bonnemarch, the area of flat, mostly-deforested countryside around the grand city of Bonne, an inland hub of education and high culture. The war ended when an army, headed by the Regent of Bonne, expelled both the Patians and the Zieris from the Bonnemarch, which established itself as an independent city-state. Its nature as a buffer zone between the two nations, along with the prosperity of the land, Bonnemarch has established itself as a neutral meeting ground for different parties, whether warring states, rival trade companies, religious disputants or simply duelists for honor, heading off potential feuds with single combat. Part of the reason for the prosperity of the Bonnemarch comes from the Bonnemarch Gate, to which all nations’ capitals have keystones, allowing teleportation between the Gate and the capitals dependent upon conditional permission from the Regent’s mages; through it flow every sort of goods, making the Bonne market the grandest trading stage in all Ardos and lending further wealth and glory to the city’s many universities, palaces and manors.
The island of Nefrou has long been wracked by religious conflicts between the Rasanists of the Duchy of Corrop and the Daranis of the Diarchy of Erieria, conflicts that prevent the two from coordinating even in cases of foreign incursion. Because of that, the southern coast of the island was taken fifteen years ago by the Fassan Empire, who, realizing the fractious culture of the island, decided to construct the puppet state of Fassan-Nefrou instead of directly integrating the territory. Corrop is held by an ancient lineage of sorcerers that traces itself back to the white dragon Rasan, which ascended to godhood through their worship, whereas the nature-worshippers of Erieria are ruled by their two kings, elected among the elders of the realm-- their state is more-or-less undermined by that, as by the time a Erierian is ready to take the kingship, they’re within several years of a natural death, the sort even resurrections can’t cure. Nefrou, despite its cultural dysfunction, is rich and pleasant land, easy to farm and with fish teeming off the shore; these fish, preserved with the salt so accessible here, provide key food sources to half of Ardos, and the magical components ranging from sahuagin bile to pearls to sea-serpent slime earn Nefrouni traders great wealth. In addition to that, Mount Nefrou, the volcano that formed the island, is rich in magical crystals of many sorts; enterprising mages visit the caldera to harvest crystal for spell components, crystal balls, canter-stabilizers and more.
The Queendom of Galkia, as one might gather from its title, flips the typical patriarchy on its head. Though most realms recognize the equality of women and men, some enforce tight gender roles, such as the Grand Duchy, where women have essentially only those rights the men in their life grant them, women are politically aand socially the superiors of men in the Queendom, establishing such situations as armies of male infantry commanded and led by women cavalry. This political situation often makes diplomacy with other realms difficult; for obvious reasons this makes for a longstanding rivalry with Aria, but most foreigners to the Queendom are slightly uncomfortable at the least with the abjection of the Queen’s male subjects. That being said, the Queendom of Galkia is blessed with fertile soil, green forests, and the majority of Ardos’ supply of greenwood, nearly-sacred trees that make the finest bows, the steadiest ships, and the strongest homes. That timber, along with the spices gathered in the city, which tend to shoot up around greenwood stands, make up the basis of the trade economy of the Queendom. Currently, the Queendom is at odds with the Fassan Empire, as they’ve been embargoed from trading in the Boissan entrepot; a real problem for the Queendom, as they have a quality port at Fiuglia, their capitol, on the northern shore, but lack sea access on their south shore, which they’ve long used Bouis for, until the imposition of the embargo on Galkian goods since Viktor II Fassan’s ascension, as his personal politics hold a special loathing for the Queendom’s matriarchy.
Great Knosia, which styles itself the descendant of the Knosian Empire which once spanned all Western Ardos, is now a remnant of its original self. The Knosian Order of paladins, which effectively governed the Empire and kept it in line with the interests of justice, peace and the common good, has devolved into a social club for the nobility, with a few still enabled to use their holy powers but most of whom are simply rich cavalry warriors without magical abilities or the moral authority invested in them. Still, to this day, the Order rules the land, and for reasons of perception and moral authority is obliged to rule in the interests of their people, though the more cynical among them jockey for every opportunity to enrich and empower themselves at the expense of the people. The collapse of Knosian spiritual authority, of course, came not with the collapse of the Empire but with the Rhysian Revolution, in which Rhys IV Andrikos, the High Chaplain of the order and one of the continent’s greatest clerics, fell to corruption and revolted against the Order, falling into twenty years of brutal civil war concluded by the cession of the new Kingdom of Rhysia to its new king a hundred-and-twenty years ago. Though most of the brigand, blackguard and bloodthirsty members of the Order went with Rhys in his new kingdom, the idea that the order was incorruptible, though upon shaky foundations already, was permanently stained by the war, and even a century later, Great Knosia has become a hub of crime and immorality outside the cities, where bandit lords, mage-tyrants and monsters more-or-less rule with impunity.
The Kingdom of Rhysia, itself a young offshoot of Great Knosia and founded by a malign priest who named the lands for himself, are a fairly straightforward illustration of aristocratic tyranny. Serfs suffer, as the lords rule and revel, and the royal court is a hotbed of intrigue, where most of the backstabbing is literal. That being said, for a state as principally evil as Rhysia, it has the unusual characteristic of being a fair arbiter and a recognized diplomatic power in Ardos, for the fact that the Rhysian kings have decided that it is better to consolidate and make unanswerable the power they have over their own lands than attempt to expand into others, where the people are unused to the Rhysian yoke and would soon rebel. Within the borders, the constant maintenance of military forces, aimed inward, make the roads fairly free of monsters and magical dangers, but the soldiers pose the same threat as monsters to travelers, merchants, and peasants alike. The land of Rhysia, forested in the south and the greenest of the Great Expanse to the north, its grassland fertilized and watered by meltwater off the Nuraks, is fertile and rich, which has prevented the sort of population contraction that the unsuited rule of the Rhysian nobility might otherwise create. Exports revolve around agricultural products, which they ship in magically-enhanced cogs hundreds of feet long and containing veritable seas of grain and crates upon crates of preserved vegetables, along with the mines at Kalos, the greatest mines outside the mountainous regions of Ardos and the source for nearly all the continent’s wolfram, useful for manipulating magic, whether attracting or repelling it, along with incorporation into the finest steel.
The land of Nurak, as it fails a simple categorization like “kingdom”, is a sparse, slightly-populated realm in the center of Ardos, occupying nearly all the Nurak Mountains. The harsh mountains and freezing winters preclude a large civilization from springing up there, but the dwellers of the land, primarily orcs aboveground and dwarves below, worship the mountains as their guardian spirits. It’s for this reason that every clan, and almost every adult member of those clans, is trained for war and drill for a month a year in the sort of irregular tactics, ambushes, and mountain warfare needed to defend their homes, and as the denizens have no ambition to expand beyond the mountains they call their home, Nurak is both staunchly defended and free of warfare for hundreds of years. Most of the economy of the land is based on what the mountains provide; magical remains from the monsters and beasts living in each cave, cranny and clearing, ore and gems from the rich veins of the Nurakksul, and given the glut of trained and talented warriors the land’s known for, loot and treasure brought home from the thousands of Nurakians who take up the adventurer’s life, though rarely do they stray from their beloved mountains for long. What government exists is an assembly, held every two years, between clans, the few city councils, and those who earned enough fame and prestige to stop their seating at the assembly being objected to; the assembly mostly sets priorities for production, determines trading contracts and what little diplomacy is needed, and commissions heroes for what villains and beasts the locals cannot overcome. Mutual aid, clan ties and the ancient friendship of orcs and dwarves fills in much of the power gap that exists.
The remaining states are: the Domain of Bhurk, which I expect to be a LN-slightly LE expansionist oligarchy with a military with many low-to-mid-level casters (well, and some high-level generals),
Datgerdia, a CG republic of refugees from an ancient war, mostly the small races, with an economy based off luxury goods and trained monsters like griffons and ridable bullettes,
Kuhkia, which I think will be a monastic state, where the rich land lets monastaries act as feudal centers of power and trade entrepots,
the twin island nations of Il'har and Copjez, two warring states of yuan-ti that other major political players secretly sabotage and support to prevent them from unifying and invading Ardos proper,
Je'Het, which I haven't fully thought through but feel like should be a theocracy of some sort,
Brur Khar, which is an agricultural state with a massive rural population ruled by mostly-benevolent elven horse lords (think an idealized Mongolia, with steeds ranging from horses to magic mounts),
Pholis, which I expect to be Venice-Sicily with something like an arcane Theodosian Walls to keep independent from Brur Khar,
the Fylkirate of Skland, a maritime empire with a population heavy on dwarves, an integrated and prestigious if small population of giants, a religion encouraging raiding its enemies, with its vassals Holm (a trade city) and Ubzhall (the ancestral hall of the giants and the surrounding country) more-or-less constantly agitating for independence while still coveting the trade wealth the Fylkirate brings them,
and the triplet kingdoms of Shem, Krystur and Thiluna, which disintegrated from the Black Skull Empire when the lich who ruled was slain a hundred-forty years ago, and haven't reunified because of religious and cultural differences.
Anyone have any ideas, or want to flesh out any of the incomplete realms? I'm supremely interested in your input, and if you want to cannibalize some or all this for your settings, be my guest! One note: not to be too politically correct, but just because it lines up with my interests, no "evil race state" and, ideally, not too much Fantasy Foreign Culture Equivalent.
submitted by irritated_socialist to dndnext [link] [comments]

Hitting a wall coming up with interesting nations for the Continent of Ardos: here's what I have so far, and can anyone give me further pointers?

My campaign, my first not from a module, is taking place on the continent of Ardos: image provided to give you an idea of the geography, mostly forests in the south and west, mountains in the middle, and grassland with some rainforest in the west and north. Also, to give an idea as to the sort of setting, all land is claimed by governments of one sort or another, with ruins / monsters / evil lairs on the periphery far from settlements, and race relations are pretty egalitarian, especially because my Orcs are INT 10 and not tied to any evil, Grummush or otherwise. No races other than most goblinoids and yuan-ti are evil by nature, and the game's audience are mainly queer, mostly marginalized people, and all left-wing, so I'm making it comfortable for them and a little upbeat-fantasy, because with these dark days, no need for our D&D to be all half-orc products of rape and starving villages bereft of any hope. Not SUPER high magic, but more magical than RAW: for an example, for 2,000 GP you can get a totally-not-a-pistol that fires caster-level-1 combat cantrips, with noncombat cantrips more accessible to, say, craftsmen, many learn magic and essentially anyone who wants to has the ability to learn a cantrip or two.
I have ideas for some of my nations, first of which will be the Dulands, which is a relatively safe and urbanized place for early levels:
The Dulands are a confederacy of allied towns, with no centralized authority, limited legal force, little military power and governed by city councils of traders, mages, religious figures and representatives of the common people, elected by acclaim. The Dulands’ terrain is dominated by evergreen forests and fertile farmland, although as far south as they are, their winters are harsh. The cities of the Dulands, primarily Finster but also including Thetford, another major trade entrepot, are prosperous and have magic weaved throughout their planning, guaranteeing thick stone walls and fresh water for everyone. Their ability to continue existing, free of noble power, monstrous incursion or foreign invasion comes from their island’s blessing; six hundred years ago, after a major war, a saint-cleric of La used her life-force and magnificent magical powers to create a barrier along the island, which, when crossed by those with hostile intent, invokes a storm that sinks or repels their ship or blasts fliers out of the sky with lightning. Dulanders are involved in trade throughout Ardos, and their primary exports are magical goods, luxuries, and verdigreen, a nearly-indispensible alchemical component. The Dulands are majority human, though a large portion of their residents are of other races, primarily high elves and shield dwarves.
The Fassan Empire, or Fassana, is a military autocracy, headed by the chief general of the realm, currently Viktor IV Fassan, although House Fassan only occasionally holds the imperial title in the nation named for them. The Empire, whose vassal states include the city-state of Boisses and their recently-conquered Fassan-Nefrou, rules with an iron fist, though their rule is legitimized by the grain ration guaranteed to every resident, citizen or not, and the extensive system of trade routes, highways, and passes guarded by military forces, making the Fassan Empire among the safest places to travel, as long as you follow the extensive laws. Citizenship is earned among the Fassanas through six years of military service, involvement in three successful militia or guardsmans’ sorties with confirmable combat victories, or the ability to cast third-level spells, although citizenship is less a necessity than a way of granting privileges akin to a very minor noble, including the right to claim land of your own to settle after successful expansionist military campaigns. The population of the Empire is nearly exclusively human, though successful dwarven and orcish settlements dot the Empire and all races, with the exception of tieflings who are expelled at birth, are at least legally tolerated. The countryside primarily consists of yew forests in the south, temperate rainforests in the north, and wetlands between, and the primary exports are metalwork, weaponry, magical goods and naval supplies, given the preponderance of high-quality wood. The Empire is currently at war with the Patian Republic, the Queendom of Galkia, and the Grand Duchy of Aria, the last two of whom having set aside their ancient rivalry to curb Fassan expansion.
The Patian Republic, shortened to Patia, is a relatively new state, having formed from the ashes of the dead Kingdom of Patia, whose royal line was cursed for their evil deeds. Decisions are made as communally as possible; direct democracy rules the villages and towns, while decisions on a national scale are made through a process in which assemblies, held every twenty miles or so apart, each send a representative for every five hundred assembled to the capital at the city of Merin, which then decides amongst themselves, unless a deadlock occurs and the amended issue returns to the local assemblies. This creates a realm unified in their common differences, happy to be citizens of such an enlightened state, and privy to the generous benefits the people’s government distributes; that being said, decisions are made either slowly or even slower under the system, and in times of crisis, the ability for the Patians to resolve their differences, choose a path forward, and protect themselves can be undermined by internal resentments, factionalism or simply the pace of a system involving delegates taking monthlong journeys to the capital and back. Among the concessions extracted by the common people are Ardos’ strictest magical laws; practicioners of magic beyond cantrips are bound to magic-guilds which regulate every spell cast outside active combat, and the penalties for unlawful magic use are severe indeed. The Patians were the recipients of a declaration of war by the Fassan Empire, but their extensive diplomatic ties and positive relations with most Ardon nations led to the formation of a coalition with the Queendom and the Grand Duchy. The terrain is dominated by lush forests, including the pichin-trees, rare outside the Republic and producing bountiful fruits with texture, flavor and nutrition similar to loaves of fine white bread and immune to spoilage if kept dry, meaning that the Republic has much less reliance on agriculture than other realms, accordingly creating a society with much leisure and creative time. The primary exports of the Republic are pichin, artwork, luxuries, cocoa and alchemical components found in the forests.
The Kingdom of Zier is an elven kingdom among the forests of northwestern Ardos, with its population mostly wood elves and gnomes living in nature, though the urban population is a mix of all races. Though nominally a kingdom, the ruling monarch, currently Elai II Virnoula, holds most of his power through ceremony and his powerful magic, because the royal family traditionally has dozens of children, coronating the most powerful mage of the lot, as long as they’re of moral decency. The kings hold some authority, but have little influence over local rule, such as it is; Zier has few rules other than “be decent”, and decisions are made among the elders and mages of the community. This creates an egalitarian society, though one in which a meaningful class divide between magic and mundane persists. Zier also treats music as sacred, and thus bards or simply those talented with instrument or voice are treated as, unofficially, elders in their own right, having the gift treated as a blessing from all the best gods and wise in the lore and stories passed down through music. The culture of Zier is peaceful and anti-aggressive, and thus the nation isn’t participating in the Fassan coalitionary war, although at least part of that can be ascribed to the longstanding tensions between the magical society of Zier and the Patian society of heavy magic restrictions. The trade economy of Zier is based on the creation of art objects, jewelry and magic, given that the forest essentially provides for the day-to-day needs of the people, and it’s against the spirit of Zieran culture to admit the kingdom is wealthy, prosperous and, if turned toward warfare, powerful.
The Grand Duchy of Aria is the most thoroughly feudalized state in Ardos. Ruled by an aristocracy obsessed with breeding and lineage, the Arian (pronounced are-y-ahn) nobility trace their proud history back to the war of conquest in which a band of “noble” human warriors obliterated a fledgling orcish civilization. Within the Duchy, anyone but humans are considered near-untouchables, although the existence of illusionists and disguise-masters means that those with human-like physiques can live in secret there, if they have the pre-existing assets to afford concealment of their identities. At least partially because of their institutionalized discrimination, which inhibits their abilities to conduct trade and diplomacy, the Grand Duchy is among the least developed lands of Ardos, with most of its citizens conducting subsistence agriculture, and the relative inability to fend off threats that don’t directly affect the aristocracy means that the lands are, by and large, more dangerous than the surrounding nations and more likely to allow evil beings to establish lairs and project power against the locals. That said, given the extensive use of alchemical weaponry-- fireglass, coldsnap, deathdust and others-- in the Arian conquest, the Duchy’s nobility have long supported alchemical and thaumaturgopharmaceutical advances, meaning that what little trade the Grand Duchy conducts is usually in those interests, providing cures, tonic draughts, recreational substances and deadly poisons alike to the rest of Ardos.
During the last war between the Patian Republic and the Kingdom of Zier, most of the fighting occurred in the Bonnemarch, the area of flat, mostly-deforested countryside around the grand city of Bonne, an inland hub of education and high culture. The war ended when an army, headed by the Regent of Bonne, expelled both the Patians and the Zieris from the Bonnemarch, which established itself as an independent city-state. Its nature as a buffer zone between the two nations, along with the prosperity of the land, Bonnemarch has established itself as a neutral meeting ground for different parties, whether warring states, rival trade companies, religious disputants or simply duelists for honor, heading off potential feuds with single combat. Part of the reason for the prosperity of the Bonnemarch comes from the Bonnemarch Gate, to which all nations’ capitals have keystones, allowing teleportation between the Gate and the capitals dependent upon conditional permission from the Regent’s mages; through it flow every sort of goods, making the Bonne market the grandest trading stage in all Ardos and lending further wealth and glory to the city’s many universities, palaces and manors.
The island of Nefrou has long been wracked by religious conflicts between the Rasanists of the Duchy of Corrop and the Daranis of the Diarchy of Erieria, conflicts that prevent the two from coordinating even in cases of foreign incursion. Because of that, the southern coast of the island was taken fifteen years ago by the Fassan Empire, who, realizing the fractious culture of the island, decided to construct the puppet state of Fassan-Nefrou instead of directly integrating the territory. Corrop is held by an ancient lineage of sorcerers that traces itself back to the white dragon Rasan, which ascended to godhood through their worship, whereas the nature-worshippers of Erieria are ruled by their two kings, elected among the elders of the realm-- their state is more-or-less undermined by that, as by the time a Erierian is ready to take the kingship, they’re within several years of a natural death, the sort even resurrections can’t cure. Nefrou, despite its cultural dysfunction, is rich and pleasant land, easy to farm and with fish teeming off the shore; these fish, preserved with the salt so accessible here, provide key food sources to half of Ardos, and the magical components ranging from sahuagin bile to pearls to sea-serpent slime earn Nefrouni traders great wealth. In addition to that, Mount Nefrou, the volcano that formed the island, is rich in magical crystals of many sorts; enterprising mages visit the caldera to harvest crystal for spell components, crystal balls, canter-stabilizers and more.
The Queendom of Galkia, as one might gather from its title, flips the typical patriarchy on its head. Though most realms recognize the equality of women and men, some enforce tight gender roles, such as the Grand Duchy, where women have essentially only those rights the men in their life grant them, women are politically aand socially the superiors of men in the Queendom, establishing such situations as armies of male infantry commanded and led by women cavalry. This political situation often makes diplomacy with other realms difficult; for obvious reasons this makes for a longstanding rivalry with Aria, but most foreigners to the Queendom are slightly uncomfortable at the least with the abjection of the Queen’s male subjects. That being said, the Queendom of Galkia is blessed with fertile soil, green forests, and the majority of Ardos’ supply of greenwood, nearly-sacred trees that make the finest bows, the steadiest ships, and the strongest homes. That timber, along with the spices gathered in the city, which tend to shoot up around greenwood stands, make up the basis of the trade economy of the Queendom. Currently, the Queendom is at odds with the Fassan Empire, as they’ve been embargoed from trading in the Boissan entrepot; a real problem for the Queendom, as they have a quality port at Fiuglia, their capitol, on the northern shore, but lack sea access on their south shore, which they’ve long used Bouis for, until the imposition of the embargo on Galkian goods since Viktor II Fassan’s ascension, as his personal politics hold a special loathing for the Queendom’s matriarchy.
Great Knosia, which styles itself the descendant of the Knosian Empire which once spanned all Western Ardos, is now a remnant of its original self. The Knosian Order of paladins, which effectively governed the Empire and kept it in line with the interests of justice, peace and the common good, has devolved into a social club for the nobility, with a few still enabled to use their holy powers but most of whom are simply rich cavalry warriors without magical abilities or the moral authority invested in them. Still, to this day, the Order rules the land, and for reasons of perception and moral authority is obliged to rule in the interests of their people, though the more cynical among them jockey for every opportunity to enrich and empower themselves at the expense of the people. The collapse of Knosian spiritual authority, of course, came not with the collapse of the Empire but with the Rhysian Revolution, in which Rhys IV Andrikos, the High Chaplain of the order and one of the continent’s greatest clerics, fell to corruption and revolted against the Order, falling into twenty years of brutal civil war concluded by the cession of the new Kingdom of Rhysia to its new king a hundred-and-twenty years ago. Though most of the brigand, blackguard and bloodthirsty members of the Order went with Rhys in his new kingdom, the idea that the order was incorruptible, though upon shaky foundations already, was permanently stained by the war, and even a century later, Great Knosia has become a hub of crime and immorality outside the cities, where bandit lords, mage-tyrants and monsters more-or-less rule with impunity.
The Kingdom of Rhysia, itself a young offshoot of Great Knosia and founded by a malign priest who named the lands for himself, are a fairly straightforward illustration of aristocratic tyranny. Serfs suffer, as the lords rule and revel, and the royal court is a hotbed of intrigue, where most of the backstabbing is literal. That being said, for a state as principally evil as Rhysia, it has the unusual characteristic of being a fair arbiter and a recognized diplomatic power in Ardos, for the fact that the Rhysian kings have decided that it is better to consolidate and make unanswerable the power they have over their own lands than attempt to expand into others, where the people are unused to the Rhysian yoke and would soon rebel. Within the borders, the constant maintenance of military forces, aimed inward, make the roads fairly free of monsters and magical dangers, but the soldiers pose the same threat as monsters to travelers, merchants, and peasants alike. The land of Rhysia, forested in the south and the greenest of the Great Expanse to the north, its grassland fertilized and watered by meltwater off the Nuraks, is fertile and rich, which has prevented the sort of population contraction that the unsuited rule of the Rhysian nobility might otherwise create. Exports revolve around agricultural products, which they ship in magically-enhanced cogs hundreds of feet long and containing veritable seas of grain and crates upon crates of preserved vegetables, along with the mines at Kalos, the greatest mines outside the mountainous regions of Ardos and the source for nearly all the continent’s wolfram, useful for manipulating magic, whether attracting or repelling it, along with incorporation into the finest steel.
The land of Nurak, as it fails a simple categorization like “kingdom”, is a sparse, slightly-populated realm in the center of Ardos, occupying nearly all the Nurak Mountains. The harsh mountains and freezing winters preclude a large civilization from springing up there, but the dwellers of the land, primarily orcs aboveground and dwarves below, worship the mountains as their guardian spirits. It’s for this reason that every clan, and almost every adult member of those clans, is trained for war and drill for a month a year in the sort of irregular tactics, ambushes, and mountain warfare needed to defend their homes, and as the denizens have no ambition to expand beyond the mountains they call their home, Nurak is both staunchly defended and free of warfare for hundreds of years. Most of the economy of the land is based on what the mountains provide; magical remains from the monsters and beasts living in each cave, cranny and clearing, ore and gems from the rich veins of the Nurakksul, and given the glut of trained and talented warriors the land’s known for, loot and treasure brought home from the thousands of Nurakians who take up the adventurer’s life, though rarely do they stray from their beloved mountains for long. What government exists is an assembly, held every two years, between clans, the few city councils, and those who earned enough fame and prestige to stop their seating at the assembly being objected to; the assembly mostly sets priorities for production, determines trading contracts and what little diplomacy is needed, and commissions heroes for what villains and beasts the locals cannot overcome. Mutual aid, clan ties and the ancient friendship of orcs and dwarves fills in much of the power gap that exists.
The remaining states are: the Domain of Bhurk, which I expect to be a LN-slightly LE expansionist oligarchy with a military with many low-to-mid-level casters (well, and some high-level generals),
Datgerdia, a CG republic of refugees from an ancient war, mostly the small races, with an economy based off luxury goods and trained monsters like griffons and ridable bullettes,
Kuhkia, which I think will be a monastic state, where the rich land lets monastaries act as feudal centers of power and trade entrepots,
the twin island nations of Il'har and Copjez, two warring states of yuan-ti that other major political players secretly sabotage and support to prevent them from unifying and invading Ardos proper,
Je'Het, which I haven't fully thought through but feel like should be a theocracy of some sort,
Brur Khar, which is an agricultural state with a massive rural population ruled by mostly-benevolent elven horse lords (think an idealized Mongolia, with steeds ranging from horses to magic mounts),
Pholis, which I expect to be Venice-Sicily with something like an arcane Theodosian Walls to keep independent from Brur Khar,
the Fylkirate of Skland, a maritime empire with a population heavy on dwarves, an integrated and prestigious if small population of giants, a religion encouraging raiding its enemies, with its vassals Holm (a trade city) and Ubzhall (the ancestral hall of the giants and the surrounding country) more-or-less constantly agitating for independence while still coveting the trade wealth the Fylkirate brings them,
and the triplet kingdoms of Shem, Krystur and Thiluna, which disintegrated from the Black Skull Empire when the lich who ruled was slain a hundred-forty years ago, and haven't reunified because of religious and cultural differences.
Anyone have any ideas, or want to flesh out any of the incomplete realms? I'm supremely interested in your input, and if you want to cannibalize some or all this for your settings, be my guest! One note: not to be too politically correct, but just because it lines up with my interests, no "evil race state" and, ideally, not too much Fantasy Foreign Culture Equivalent.
submitted by irritated_socialist to DMAcademy [link] [comments]

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Margin Trading

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